Cannabidiol enhancement of exposure therapy in treatment refractory patients with phobias: study protocol of a randomized controlled trial
Phobic anxiety disorders are among the most prevalent psychiatric disorders and are burdensome in terms of loss of quality of life and work productivity. Evidence-based treatments are relatively successful in the majority of patients, especially exposure therapy. However, a substantial subset of patients fails to achieve or stay in remission. Preclinical and genetic research have yielded evidence that the cannabinoid system is involved in the extinction of fear, presumed to underlie the beneficial effects of exposure therapy in phobic disorders. A cannabinoid constituent that may enhance endocannabinoid signaling is cannabidiol (CBD), a non-psychoactive component of cannabis. Hence, the addition of CBD to exposure therapy is expected to strengthen effects of treatment. To determine the added benefit of CBD on exposure therapy, we conduct a randomized controlled trial, in which patients in whom previous treatment as usual has not yielded sufficient response receive either CBD or placebo preceding 8 exposure sessions in a double-blind fashion. A subsidiary aim is to explore which (combination of) clinical, behavioral and genetic profiles of patients are related to treatment response.
This is an 8-week multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Seventy-two patients with social phobia or panic disorder with agoraphobia with incomplete response to earlier treatment will be included from outpatient clinics in the Netherlands. Patients are randomized to augmentation of exposure therapy with 300 mg CBD or placebo. The study medication is administered orally, 2 h preceding each of the eight 90 min exposure sessions. Measurements will take place at baseline, first administration of medication, every session, mid-treatment, last administration of medication, post-treatment and at 3 and 6 months’ follow-up. The primary outcome measure is the score on the Fear Questionnaire (FQ). In addition, determinants of the expected treatment enhancing effect of CBD will be explored.
This is the first trial to investigate whether the addition of CBD to exposure therapy is effective in reducing phobic symptoms in treatment refractory patients with social phobia or panic disorder with agoraphobia.
Netherlands Trial Register NTR5100. Registered 13 March 2015. Protocol version: issue date 17 Jan 2018, protocol amendment number 7.
Phobic disorders (e.g. social anxiety disorder, panic disorder with agoraphobia) are among the most prevalent disorders according to the World Health Organization’s World Mental Health Survey Initiative . These and other anxiety disorders have major impact on health, individual suffering and societal costs . The estimated societal costs in Europe as a result of anxiety disorders were 74.4 billion Euros in 2010, affecting more than 69 million Europeans . Anxiety disorders often co-occur with other mental health disorders [4, 5], and are associated with an increased risk of suicide . Spontaneous recovery from these disorders is uncommon; if left untreated, phobias typically follow a chronic course, with low remission and high relapse rates .
The current evidence-based treatment entails exposure with response prevention therapy, either alone or in combination with serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs). Exposure therapy is relatively successful, with improvement in up to 60% of patients. However, only 30 to 50% of phobic patients achieves full remission . Likewise, treatment with SSRIs is relatively effective, however, many patients experience relapse after discontinuing SSRI treatment [9, 10], while the effects of successful exposure treatment seem to be more sustainable . Considering the high prevalence of anxiety disorders and the large number of patients for whom the anxiety symptoms remain refractory after (repeated) gold-standard treatments, new approaches to the treatment of anxiety are urgently needed [12, 13]. Preclinical as well as clinical studies have pointed to the relevance of utilizing fear learning paradigms for a deeper understanding of the neurocircuitry and neurochemistry of the fear system involved in anxiety disorders . Specifically, patients with anxiety disorders show stronger fear responses during extinction than comparison subjects , and poor fear extinction is predictive of poor outcome in exposure therapy .
A potential novel target for the facilitation of fear extinction has been derived from preclinical research. The crucial involvement of the cannabinoid system in fear extinction was first shown by Marsicano et al. . The results show that (genetic or pharmacological) blockage of transmission at the cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1) inhibits extinction of fear in mice. This is not surprising given the fact the CB1 receptors are richly expressed in memory-related brain areas such as hippocampus and prefrontal cortex, and as such can modulate (fear) memory . In the last 15 years many studies have extended this finding using both animal and human subjects (for reviews see  or ). Animal research has shown that facilitation of the endocannabinoid system (ECS) enhances extinction, whereas blocking or deletion of CB1 receptors impairs extinction. In healthy human subjects we have demonstrated that genetic variation in a CB1 polymorphism significantly affected extinction learning . Furthermore, the administration of cannabinoids in humans has shown to strengthen extinction and protect against reinstatement of fear [21,22,23]. In summary, previous research clearly points to the ECS as a promising candidate for extinction enhancement. Until now, studies in humans have mainly investigated the effects of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), which has been shown to decrease physiological measures of fear during extinction  and recall . However, THC is not suitable for phobic patients given the diversity of psychoactive effects caused by THC, among which the high that recreational users of cannabis seek.
In the meantime, studies have demonstrated the potential benefit of another important ingredient of cannabis: cannabidiol (CBD, for a review see ). CBD interacts with several receptors in the brain including cannabinoid receptors 1 and 2, transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 (TRVP1) and serotonin 1A (5-HT1A) receptor, and inhibits or in other ways negatively affects the function of the enzyme that degrades endogenously released cannabinoid neurotransmitters (fatty acid amine hydrolase; FAAH ). In line with FAAH’s function in degrading anandamide , inhibition of FAAH has been shown to increase levels of anandamide. Preclinical research indicates that CBD enhances fear extinction and reconsolidation, and co-administrating CB1 antagonists block such effects suggesting that they are exerted via modulation of the ECS [28, 29]. Extinction of conditioned fear is proposed to underlie the effect of exposure therapy . Hence, the finding that CBD specifically affects (the consolidation of) extinction suggests a potential use of CBD in augmenting the effect of exposure therapy. This leads to the hypothesis that administration of CBD during sessions of exposure therapy is expected to specifically enhance the extinction of pathological fears. The advantage of this application is that CBD needs to be administered occasionally, i.e. preceding exposure sessions only.
We aim to take this previous research to the next level by conducting the first randomized controlled trial with CBD versus 7, administered in a double-blind fashion, for the augmentation of exposure treatment in patients with social phobia or panic disorder with agoraphobia. Also, we aim to specifically target patients who have already received one of the gold-standard treatments without responding sufficiently or having relapsed, because this group needs additional approaches most.
The main study aim is to test whether administration of CBD as an augmentation step in exposure therapy can strengthen treatment outcome in patients with phobic disorders who have previously failed to respond satisfactorily to evidence-based treatment. Clinical measurements are used to investigate whether the effect of CBD on exposure is quicker, stronger, or longer-lasting than regular exposure therapy only. Additionally, there are various exploratory subsidiary aims in this study. First, a fear conditioning and extinction task is applied at baseline. This task has shown enhanced fear responses in patients with anxiety disorders as opposed to healthy comparison subjects . This task also revealed different extinction trajectories, with patients being overrepresented in a poor extinction profile . These profiles have also shown to be sensitive to differences between patients who will benefit from exposure treatment and those who will not. A re-extinction assessment is done after the first medication administration. The aim of this task is to explore a) whether patients with a specific profile can particularly benefit from CBD augmentation during exposure, and b) the acute effects of CBD intake on fear extinction. Second, we aim to explore the interactions between specific genetic variation and CBD administration on treatment effect. We are particularly interested in studying whether variants within the cannabinoid receptor 1 gene are involved in a differential response to CBD augmented exposure therapy, including rs2180619 identified in our previous study in healthy individuals associated with impaired spontaneous extinction of conditioned fear . Additionally, impact of genetic polymorphisms within the FAAH gene  and genetic polymorphisms identified as being related to treatment response in anxiety disorders  will be explored. Similarly, clinical predictors of treatment response will be assessed to determine which sort of patients might benefit most from this augmented treatment. Lastly, we aim to assess cost-effectiveness of CBD enhancement of exposure treatment.
The study encompasses a multi-site randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled fixed dose clinical trial for patients with treatment resistant social phobia or panic disorder with agoraphobia. Either placebo (N = 36) or 300 mg cannabidiol (N = 36) will be administered 8 times as an adjunct to 8 weekly 90 min sessions consisting of standardized exposure therapy. The study has been approved by the Medical Ethics Committee of the University Medical Centre Utrecht. Written informed consent will be obtained from all participants. The enrollment of the first participant was on 15 February 2016, recruitment is ongoing at the time of submission. Figure 1 displays a flowchart of the study.
Flowchart of the study design. Data is collected both during T0-T6 measurements and therapy sessions, see Table 1 for a complete overview
Tackling Phobias: Face Your Fears With CBD Oil
If you struggle with a phobia, you are not alone. It is one of the most common forms of anxiety disorders, with an estimated 10 million people currently having a phobia in the UK. The condition does not discriminate. It can affect anyone, irrespective of their sex, age, or social background.
Phobias are more than a simple fear; they develop when people start to organise their lives around doing everything possible to avoid what they are afraid of, whether it’s a situation, an animal, object, or place. Medically, phobias are classed as a type of anxiety disorder. Those suffering from the condition come into contact with their phobia or even think about it, leading to severe anxiety and even panic attacks.
CBD has been used for some time now to help support those with their overall health, which can also include symptoms of anxiety. CBD, short for cannabidiol, is a natural compound found in cannabis plants. It has no intoxicating effects and is generally considered safe to use. Even when you are trying to figure out the right dosage for supplementing treatment of your phobia, there is minimal risk of taking too much. Due to its reputation as a safe, natural supplement, CBD is legal to use in the UK and the most past, worldwide.
This article will explore the different types of phobias, how CBD may help interact with our bodies, and the potential CBD could have in supporting those battling the extreme fears often associated with anxiety disorders. So, let’s take a deep breath, and learn about how to face our fears with the help of CBD.
Types of Phobias
There is a variety of different types of phobias. The long list of fears can be divided into two main categories:
- Simple Phobias – These tend to be fears about specific animals, objects, situations or activities. Some common examples include:
- Enclosed spaces
- Complex Phobias – A complex phobia is often more disabling than simple phobias, as they are usually linked with a deep-rooted fear or anxiety about a particular situation or circumstance. The two most common examples of complex phobias are social phobia and agoraphobia.
Social phobias include a fear of social situations, such as going along to a party or performing in social situations, such as speaking during a meeting. People with social phobias have a dread of embarrassing themselves or of being humiliated in public.
Agoraphobia, however, is the fear of being in situations where an escape might be challenging, or help wouldn’t be accessible if something were to go wrong. For example, a person struggling with agoraphobia may be scared of visiting a shopping centre, travelling on public transport, and (in some severe cases) leaving home.
Whether someone is struggling with a simple or complex phobia will affect different people differently. Although still uncomfortable, some people will only react with mild anxiety when confronted with the object of their fear. In contrast, others experience severe anxiety or have a brutal panic attack, which can often lead to avoiding the cause of the fear in the first place. Most people with a phobia will be able to identify the cause, some more complex phobias may need diagnosing and questions answered by a medical professional.
Common Phobia Symptoms
No matter how insignificant a phobia may be to an outsider, for those experiencing it, incredibly complex phobias such as agoraphobia (a fear of public places and open spaces) can be incredibly distressing. Their phobia can limit normal daily activities and can even lead to depression and severe anxiety.
People with phobias will often try to do all they can to avoid contact with the thing or situation that triggers their fear and anxiety. The limits someone will go to avoid the source will vary considerably. Someone with the fear of rats (musophobia) may not want to touch a rat, whereas somebody else with the same anxiety may not even be able to look at a picture.
There are a variety of symptoms that coincide with phobias. Some are physical, others emotional. Panic attacks are one of the most common symptoms among people with phobias, and they can be very frightening and distressing for those experiencing them. The symptoms can often arise abruptly and without any warning, and can often be confused for a heart attack. With the overwhelming feelings of anxiety, a panic attack also can cause physical symptoms such as:
- Choking sensations
- Need to go to the toilet
- The sensation of butterflies in the stomach
- Chest pains or tightness in the chest
- Dry mouth
- Feeling confused or disoriented
- Feeling faint
- Headaches and dizziness
- Hot flushes or chills
- Numbness or pins and needles
- Rapid heartbeat (tachycardia)
- Ringing in the ears
- Shortness of breath or difficulty breathing
In severe cases, people can also experience psychological symptoms when going through a phobia attack. These can include:
- Fear of dying
- Fear of fainting
- Fear of losing control
- Feelings of general dread
Complex phobias, like simple phobias, can have a detrimental effect on your wellbeing. Agoraphobia commonly entails a combination of several intertwined phobias. For example, someone with a fear of being left alone (monophobia) or places where they feel trapped (claustrophobia) may also fear going outside or leaving their home.
The symptoms agoraphobics have to face with this condition differ from person to person and vary in severity. Some people may feel very nervous and fearful if they have to leave their home’s safety to do the shopping, while other agoraphobics may feel pretty relaxed, as long as they are only travelling a short distance from their home.
When someone has a social phobia, the thought of being seen out in public or attending a social event (even something as modest as a walk with a friend or chatting to a co-worker while on a break) may make them feel anxious and frightened. This vulnerability can be hugely debilitating. In some extreme cases, agoraphobics are unable to leave their homes due to the overwhelming fear; those with social phobias may avoid all forms of social interaction altogether. It can take some time to overcome a complex phobia, but with a bit of support from talking therapies and self-help techniques, it can get better.
What Causes Phobia
The research into what causes phobias has indicated that they usually develop during our childhood, teenage years, or early adulthood, often after a traumatic or stressful experience or situation. However, the sources of some phobias can be difficult to pinpoint, and it may not be clear why they have transpired.
The causes of simple phobias usually develop during early childhood, generally between the ages of four and eight. Simple phobias can occasionally be traced back to an early childhood experience. For example, if a child had a scary experience when swimming, they may fear water (aquaphobia) in their adult years. On the other hand, someone that shares a phobia with another family member may have been accidentally taught the phobia as a child. For instance, if a parent screams every time they see a spider, the child internalises the spider as a dangerous thing, and is more likely to fear them as an adult (arachnophobia).
It can be tough to pin down the exact cause of complex phobias, and the reason is often unknown. Some think it could be down to genetics, brain chemistry, and life experiences which may all play a part in developing complex phobias.
The cause of social phobias is often brought on due to a previous anxious or intense experience in a social situation. It can be that their confidence for some people has never developed past the standard stage of shyness experienced as a young child. When this occurs, it can be very challenging for those with social phobias to form close relationships with other people.
CBD and a Holistic Approach to Managing Phobias
There have been many positive treatment results for phobias, and it has been found that almost all types can be cured. The type of treatment will differ depending on the person and their kind of phobia. Treating simple phobias typically involves gradually becoming exposed to the place, object, animal, or situation that causes the fear. This type of treatment is known as desensitisation or self-exposure therapy. Some people with simple phobias chose to try these methods using self-help techniques, professional support, or a mix of the two.
Treating complex phobias will generally take longer and involve talking therapies, such as counselling, psychotherapy, and cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT). Whatever the type of phobia you’re battling, introducing a holistic approach to your treatment may provide some much-needed relief and a sense of control.
Some people with anxiety disorders such as phobias have been turning to cannabidiol (CBD). It has been reported to have the potential to support the endocannabinoid system (ECS) and overall wellbeing. CBD is thought to work by interacting with the body’s natural regulatory system called the endocannabinoid system (often referred to as ECS). There are endocannabinoid receptors almost everywhere in the body, notably forming part of the nervous system. Most of these receptors (known as CB1 and CB2 receptors) are located in the brain, but the receptors are also present in other areas such as the gut, bones, reproductive system, and immune cells.
The endocannabinoid system plays an essential role in helping the body stay within the narrow range of functional conditions. It also plays a part in vital functions such as memory, mood, stress, behaviour, sleep, appetite, pain, and immune function. The body naturally produces a chemical substance called endocannabinoids. These naturally-created cannabinoids bind to the endocannabinoid receptors and regulate core functions. The endocannabinoid system is partly responsible for keeping us healthy and happy.
Cannabis-focused scientists have found CBD oil may bind to our endocannabinoid receptors. Once attached, it may activate the endocannabinoid system to impact the regulatory responsibilities of our body. For example, taking CBD as a supplement alongside phobia treatment could help induce a sense of calm and relaxation. This may work when CBD binds to receptors in the brain, such as the serotonin (5HT)1a receptor. Serotonin deficiency is associated with phobia and other anxiety-related disorders. It’s possible the purported effects CBD has on mood and anxiety symptoms may be related to this interaction.
Understandably, the ways CBD may interact with the brain are very complicated, and there is more investigative work to be done. The evidence so far is suggesting that CBD might be a great addition to the treatment of phobias. While the research continues, it is safe to give CBD a try, as it has been found not to have adverse side effects, so it is generally thought to be safe to use.
Can You Use CBD Oil For Phobias?
There are several different ways to introduce CBD supplements to phobia treatment plans. The way CBD is administered will be down to personal preference, and even the phobia symptoms. Suppose someone experiences tense, painful muscles due to their body freezing up when encountering their phobia. In that case, a CBD topical application may be best, so it can be massaged onto the skin to potentially help relax the muscles. On the other hand, if someone experiences panic attacks before leaving their house, a CBD tincture or CBD vape product may be more suitable due to their sufficient bioavailability.
Bioavailability is something worth considering when choosing the most effective way to use CBD products for phobia symptoms. Bioavailability refers to how much, and at what rate, the CBD gets absorbed by the bloodstream. Having a basic understanding of the CBD product’s bioavailability will help users determine how much is needed, and in what form, to ensure the optimum dose ends up in the system. If bioavailability is not considered, the desired effects of CBD may not be felt, and not make any difference to the potential management of phobias. Let’s take a look at the pros and cons of the different ways to take CBD for phobias.
- CBD Tinctures – Those who are new to CBD will often think of ‘oil tinctures’ as being the leading product available on the market, and it is true: tinctures are the most common CBD product in the UK. CBD oil tinctures are intended to be applied sublingually (meaning under your tongue). The chosen dosage (measured in drops) is placed on the soft tissue below your tongue to use this form of CBD oil.
Advantages of CBD Oils and Tinctures:
- It’s convenient – To use it, you can quickly apply a dose of CBD to your tongue if and when you feel it is needed.
- They’re easy to use – You can simply drop your preferred dose of CBD oil into your mouth without any additional equipment required.
- They work pretty quickly – Sublingual CBD products tend to reach the bloodstream fairly promptly once administered.
- They are efficient – Almost none of the CBD is lost, as it does not have to pass through your digestive tract, unlike CBD in the case of CBD capsules and edibles. The CBD is absorbed directly into the bloodstream when taken sublingually.
- Range of flavour verity – Like most other forms of CBD oil, tinctures come in many different flavours, so it’s easy to find one that suits your taste.
- Available in a range of dosages – Due to CBD tinctures being so popular, most manufacturers offer them in a range of CBD concentrations. This can make it simpler to create tailored tincture usage to fit your needs and preferences.
Disadvantages of CBD Oils and Tinctures:
- Not the fastest – Although CBD tinctures work quickly, they are not the quickest form of CBD administration. CBD drops typically take between 10 to 15 minutes to reach the bloodstream. This is significantly slower than vaporised CBD, which may provide almost immediate effects.
- Inconvenient for public use – Some people who use CBD tinctures do not like to use the sublingual method in public. This is understandable, as it is not always the most subtle way to consume CBD.
- The natural taste and feel – Many do not enjoy the natural flavour or feel of sublingual CBD tinctures. If this is the case, there are many alternative forms of CBD, such as the options listed below.
- CBD Vape Oil – CBD vape oils are intended to be used with a vaporiser pen. They usually contain CBD along with additional ingredients such as propylene glycol and/or vegetable glycerin. There is also some CBD vape oil that contains artificial flavourings designed to provide a specific flavour. Unlike standard vaporisers, CBD vape oil often contains CBD as its key active ingredient instead of nicotine.
Advantages of CBD vapes:
- Exceptionally fast-acting – Due to the CBD in the vape oil being absorbed through the lungs, it reaches the bloodstream faster than any other CBD form. Some studies have found that the compounds inhaled by the lungs take as little as one or two minutes to absorb into the bloodstream.
- It is easy to use – If you are already familiar with using vape pens. There are also many different flavours out on the market, making the transition even more straightforward and enjoyable.
- More affordable – Overall, CBD vape oil is one of the most affordable and value-focused ways of consuming CBD. It is, however, essential to consider quality over a low price. If the cost of the product looks too good to be true, it generally is.
- Available in a range of dosages – Similar to CBD tinctures, CBD vape oils come in a variety of concentrations. It is best to start on a lower dose and increase as and when needed. This is especially prevalent when inhaling CBD vape oil as it can take effect quickly.
Disadvantages of CBD vapes:
- The addition of a vape pen – To use CBD vape oil, you will also need a vape pen. If you do not have a vape pen, do not want to buy one, or do not like vaping, an alternative form of CBD would be advisable.
- You can’t use them everywhere – As vaping is often restricted in public spaces in the UK, it can’t be used everywhere. This means if you are travelling on a train, for example, you will not be permitted to use a vape pen, even if it is part of your phobia management.
- CBD Capsules and Edibles – Using CBD in a capsule or edible form is a great way to get your dose of CBD discretely and conveniently, with a consistent dose every time. There is no need for a vape pen or awkward sublingual application. There are, however, with all CBD products, advantages and disadvantages.
Advantages of Oral CBD:
- They are easy to use – Compared to the other forms of CBD, capsules, in particular, are very easy to use. They can simply be swallowed with a glass of water.
- Don’t taste too earthy – If you are like many people who use CBD, the taste may not be your favourite flavour. When swallowing CBD capsules with water, they are almost flavourless, and if you opt for a CBD treat (such as a refreshing CBD mint), the taste tends to be a reward in itself.
- Easy to tweak CBD dosage – CBD capsules tend to contain a relatively low dose of CBD, which is perfect for beginners. It allows you to easily adjust the dosage by adding or removing or adding a capsule to your standard daily amount.
- Can be used anywhere – Unlike using a vape pen, which is banned in many public areas and public transport, or using a CBD oil tincture, which can be inconvenient at times, capsules and edibles are simple and easy to take in any location.
Disadvantages of Oral CBD:
- Often very slow-acting – CBD capsules and edibles are very slow to make their way into your bloodstream. This is due to oral forms of CBD needing to pass through the stomach and liver before it makes its way into the bloodstream. If a CBD capsule is used on a full stomach, it can take as long as an hour before having any noticeable potential effects. If possible relief for a phobia is needed quickly, CBD tinctures and vape oils, both of which are absorbed rapidly by your body, maybe a better option.
- Bioavailability – There are many advantages to oral CBD products, but bioavailability is not one. Edible CBD products and CBD capsules have relatively low bioavailability compared to other forms of CBD products. One study conducted into oral CBD products found that only 13 to 19% of the CBD consumed reaches the bloodstream. This percentage may seem low when you consider that CBD consumed in oils, tinctures, or vape pens reach the bloodstream at a much greater concentration and faster pace.
- Topical CBD – topical CBD CBD products designed to be used topically are used to administer CBD locally, via the skin. This is an ideal option for those who do not enjoy the taste of CBD oil or who struggle with swallowing capsules.
Advantages of Topical CBD:
- It’s easy to use – It is simple to apply an infused CBD lotion or balm to your skin. Most topical CBD products have a pleasant scent, meaning there won’t be any nasty odours for you to worry about after use.
- May have additional benefits – In addition to CBD’s potential benefits for the effects of phobias, including symptoms of anxiety and stress, it may help with symptoms of skin conditions that often flare up due to heightened emotions. For example, stress can aggravate eczema, rosacea, psoriasis, and hives.
- Huge variety of products available – There are not just CBD infused lotions and balms available for topical CBD application. There are also CBD bath additives which are an excellent option for those who find baths a relaxing form of therapy for their phobias.
Disadvantages of Topical CBD:
- Bioavailability and absorption – Similar to oral CBD products, topical CBD applications are not the best at getting the optimal CBD into the system, as they are not absorbed into the bloodstream at all. So, if you are looking to absorb as much CBD as possible, this isn’t the best option.
- Using topical products can be inconvenient – If you do not use lotions and other topical products on a regular basis, it may take a bit of time to get used to rubbing in CBD lotions. Some people find it feels a little unnatural and inconvenient.
The type of phobia a person has will determine how severely it affects their everyday life. If the cause of the phobia is an object or animal that one does not come into contact with regularly, such as a snake, for example, it is unlikely to have a detrimental effect on their day-to-day life. If, however, it is a complex phobia such as agoraphobia, it can be challenging to lead a typical happy life. Sadly, for many who suffer from phobias, it is something they battle with everyday. However, there are some ways to help make the days more bearable.
There are many reports of people successfully using CBD oil to help ease symptoms of anxiety and promote a sense of calm. So, why not try it as a holistic approach to supplementing phobia treatment, and include one of these CBD application methods in your phobia self-help plan?
Written by | Infused Amphora Team
The Infused Amphora Team is dedicated to creating resources to educate and engage consumers on the growing evidence of CBD benefits and the extensive health and wellness properties of CBD Oil.
Contributor | Angus Taylor CEO
Infused Amphora “Learn” is intended for informational purposes only and is NOT a substitute for professional medical advice, diagnosis or treatment.