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Cbd oil ratio for cancer

Cbd oil ratio for cancer

“I don’t want to feel high, but I do want to feel better that I currently do.”

Can you tell me why the 12:1 CBD/THC ratio was not recommended for you? I have done some research that suggests that too high of a THC ratio can proliferate Estrogen Positive cancer. I’ve read a couple of websites that suggest a 3:1 CBD/THC ratio is better, however, there is not a lot of information about it. Has your girlfiend been feeling better with the 1:1 ratio at all?

Contrary to what these professionals are saying I have seen cannabis bring several people back from hell using Rick Simpson oil in conjunction with Amber oil to cure cancer including My own dad & it’s been 11 years. She must do more than use the oil. She must also consume a high alkaline diet(check out Dr Sebi) as well as making your own butter and tinctures with them(comes out way cheaper) They have this great new machine called magical butter machine. Get it use it often & God Bless FYI DR SEBI CURED CANCER WAY BACK IN THE 90’s himself so if I was you I’d do some due diligence on the research tip. God Bless

Stage 2 prostate cancer, or cancer that has not grown outside the prostate capsule and have a higher PSA level then 10. As with stage I cancers, active surveillance is often a good option for men whose cancer is not causing any symptoms and who are elderly and/or have other serious health problems. Radical prostatectomy and radiation therapy (external beam or brachytherapy) may also be appropriate options.

Using THC or CBD oil and suppositories are unproven ways to treat prostate cancer. In other words there have never been human clinical trials using cannabis to treat prostate cancer. That being said, the other question would be is there any harm in using them? As far as I can tell the answer is no. The primary thing to remember is to be in contact and follow up with your urologist so that they can keep an eye on your condition and not to rely on any cannabis product to be the only modality to treat any type of cancer.

Perry Solomon, MD

I am sorry to hear that has occurred. There have been no studies on humans as to the effectiveness of cannabis to treat any type of cancer, including prostate cancer. There is anecdotal reports of patients who have used Rick Simpsons oil to help treat prostate cancer instead of having prostate surgery when the cancer is isolated to the prostate and not spread. I am sure that your urologist and oncologist have recommended treatment that they have found to be helpful when the cancer has spread to the bones. That being said, there is no downside to using cannabis if you are looking to some pain relief if the cancer is causing you bone pain. Using a 1:1 CBD/THC ratio may give you pain relief.

Perry Solomon, MD

Ideally, your wife should be in a research study because there is a lot happening right now regarding ovarian cancer.
Both THC and CBD appear to be toxic to cancer cells but obviously a lot more research needs to be done. The biggest problem with ovarian cancer is the development of resistance to the chemotherapy so lots of research is being done on immunotherapy but she can be on the cannabis oil or a tincture now.
Unfortunately, no one can tell you exactly how the Cannabis should be taken for optimal outcome. To be functional it makes sense to do CBD during the day when things have to be done and THC can be added when she does not have to drive or do business. CBD is great for stopping pain and inflammatory symptoms and it will calm anxiety and THC can give a nice uplift with a happy mood. CBD: THC in a 8:1 nonalcoholic tincture oral spray can work well in place of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and she will not be hi; 4:1 works well for inflammation and pain but it will be psychoactive; 2:1 is psychoactive but may really help her attitude relax yet allow her to get things done around the house like fixing a nice meal and being with the family.
I think anyone can use our full website but I am asking the office for clarity since I’m not 100% certain, I’m just one of the doctors here and I may not be aware if there’s a portion of the website that is unavailable for out-of-state clients.

I’m very sorry to hear of your health challenges. Your situation must be approached from many directions for true success. A high percentage of breast cancer cases our link to a deficiency of vitamin D and if the vitamin D level is not corrected you’re more likely to experience metastasis and if it’s still not corrected you have a higher risk of dying from vitamin D deficiency but it will be listed as breast cancer because most doctors do not know how to treat vitamin D deficiency. For optimal health your blood level of vitamin D must be above 50 ng/mL and that usually requires the supplements of about 10,000 international units of vitamin D3 per day.
Do high CBD low THC in a nonalcoholic tincture (my preference is medium chain triglyceride oil from coconut) 2 to 3 times per day for optimal support of your immune system, pain relief, anxiety and stress relief as well as protection for your cardiovascular and neurological systems. You will not feel psychoactive effects with high CBD cannabis but if you would like a psychoactive effect you can always add more THC.
Please read a book, “Sex, Lies and Menopause” by Wiley and Taguchi and consider a second opinion with Dr. Taguchi, who happens to have the longest live breast cancer patients because she re-balances their hormones with true bio identical’s to their 20 year old level of hormones proving that peaking the true bio identical estradiol and bio identical progesterone actually stimulate P 53 the guardian of your genome to cause involution of your cancer cells.
This does not mean that you forgo western treatment because that actually will be necessary but the cannabis will help you greatly and as soon as you are finished with your treatments you should consider starting on the Wiley protocol to keep the cancer from ever returning.
Good luck, you have a lot of reading ahead of you and lots of decisions to make but the high CBD cannabis will keep your brain sharp and focused helping you make your decisions.
Don’t hesitate to stop doctors if they try to put a lot of negative suggestions in your brain, You have the right to request that they stay on the positive side to help support you, and not break you down.

Both CBD and THC have demonstrated anti-proliferative activity in animal studies, however, there are no clinical trials to establish the optimal ratios of THC:CBD in treating cancer in humans. Most of the available literature is based on anecdotal evidence and recommends using a ratio with the maximum amount of THC that is tolerated. I would suggest starting with a THC:CBD ratio of 1:10 – 2.5mg THC: 25mg CBD and increasing that dose as tolerated. Realm of Caring recommends a CBD dose of 50mg twice daily. I have a patient with Hodgkin’s lymphoma that has responded to this dose, which is very low when compared to the Rick Simpson protocol of 60 grams (60,000 mg). With high THC doses, the most significant side effects are going be mental impairment and possibly low blood pressure and heart rate that may cause dizziness, light headedness, or fainting. Also, I’d like to mention that European studies have shown that in animal models, CBDa, the acidic precursor to CBD has even higher anti-tumor and anti-inflammatory activity than CBD.

You’re right that this is a very complicated and controversial issue and unfortunately, there is no clear cut answer.

Most evidence supports CBD as being a key anti-tumor agent in marijuana and has been acknowledged as such by the National Cancer Institute. The American Association of Cancer Research published a paper demonstrating that CBD inflicts programmed-cell death in breast cancer cells, regardless of Estrogen receptor positivity, while preserving normal breast cells.

THC also has anti-tumor properties and inhibits cell cycle progression in breast cancer cells. It has been said that THC may increase estrogen levels and may promote breast cancer growth in ER+ tumors, but there is not strong evidence to support this statement.

Unfortunately, much more research will need to be done before we can provide any clear guidance on what the “correct” ratio of CBD/THC might be (if there is one) for the treatment of specific types of cancer. I would approach it from a tolerance standpoint and also one that provides symptomatic relief of pain and/or treatment side effects. In general, this would mean a higher ratio of CBD/THC while at the same time minimizing psychoactive effects of THC.

It is true that the rectal suppositories provide greater bioavailability (upwards of 70%) than inhaled or ingested cannabis (approximately 20%).

Rick Simpson’s oil is a full-plant cannabis extract containing high amounts of THC, CBD, and other cannabinoids. It differs from CBD-oil which is often extracted from hemp and contains (mostly) CBD. The theory behind Rick Simpson’s oil is to provide the patient with maximum possible amounts of all cannabinoids, in a more nature balance that is found in the plant. Another theory is that cannabinoids work synergistically, which would support the use of such a product.

I recently tried to answer a similar question for the treatment of stage 4 breast cancer… Unfortunately, there is not a defined ratio of CBD/THC nor known dosing that is optimal for different types of cancer. Both CBD and THC have anti-tumor properties and may work synergistically.

Rick Simpson’s oil has a high concentration of THC, CBD, and other cannabinoids and has been touted as being effective not only because of these high concentrations but because it is a “whole-plant” extract.

Because THC is the main psychoactive ingredient in marijuana, some patients don’t tolerate high concentrations of THC well. My general suggestion is to consider what is tolerable for any given patient on an individual basis and to focus on symptomatic relief of pain and/or side effects of treatment, including chemotherapy. Many patients have been able to tolerate chemotherapy much better while supplementing with cannabis.

We have been receiving a lot of questions similar to yours for a variety of different types of cancer, and appropriately so! You may want to refer to my answer to a couple questions recently on breast cancer and throat cancer, and Dr. Frye’s answer to one regarding brain cancer.

The bottom line is, there is no “best” ratio known. Clinical trials will need to be performed in humans to help us understand what ratios and/or dosages are most effective in different types of cancer. We do know that in-vitro studies have demonstrated both CBD and THC to have anti-tumor properties, and there is anecdotal evidence that certain patients have had cancer go into remission following cannabis therapy.

In general, I recommend dosing according to what an individual patient can tolerate, which usually is a high CBD/THC ratio, because THC in high doses can have undesirable effects for many patients. Also, many patients find that chemotherapy side effects are more tolerable when supplementing with cannabis. If you are going to be working and/or driving while undergoing cannabis therapy, I would strongly encourage you to avoid THC during these times for obvious safety reasons.

FECO or Full extract Cannabis Oil or Hash Oil, Hemp oil or Rick Simpson Oil has gained much attention as a potential treatment for many forms of cancer. Patients have shared their success stories in treating their cancer with this healing oil. Not only does FECO help patients deal with the side effects of conventional cancer treatment (nausea, poor appetite, vomiting, pain, depression, anxiety, insomnia, to name a few), it also shows promise in helping to eliminate cancerous cells, prevent metastasis of exsiting cancer, and in preventing angiogenesis (formation of new blood vessels that feed cancerous growth). With FECO dosing can be difficult, but from my experience it seems that more is better, and patients should try to ingest as much oil as possible, while remaining functional and comfortable. No potential for overdose exsists, but extreme psychoactive effects are often not desired. As much variability exsists in the quantities of THC and CBD, and in extraction techniques, it is best to start low and slow and gradually increase the dose as tolerance is built up.
Dosing should be three times a day, with the goal of about a gram a day, with the goal of ingesting at least 60 grams of oil in total. Each patient is different, and variability in the potency of the oil can be significant. As such, dosing should be optimized to each patient’s situation and goals.

In response to @scotter1 comments. While it is always thrilling to see that people have responded in some way to different treatments for cancer, breast or otherwise, it is very important to remember that cannabis has never been shown to “cure” cancer in humans. A “cure” by most definitions is cancer-free for 5 years. There have been many many anecdotal reports from people reporting this as well as labs, etc. The main point to remember that it is important consider using cannabis in any form, in conjunction with proven medical treatments when there are not reactions between the two.

The main difficulty in proving that cannabis works is the Schedule 1 label that cannabis has and the tremendous difficulty that surrounds having studies approved. And even when they are the results can be several years down the road. I applaud people who have the open mind to try cannabis to help treat their diseases but also do not want them to ignore, refuse or stop taking proven medical ones.

Perry Solomon, MD

I think CBD is better in higher ratio for cancer if all you are looking for is to kill cancer cells. I think THC helps manage some of the side effects though. check out projectcbd.org. I really believe in the power of this plant’s medicine. Also, reduce sugar and alkalize your body. Best of luck with your health.

At this point it is important to remember that part of what you are doing with cannabis is improving quality of life. The science is exciting but lacking in detail it can only be used to point you in the right direction. Your decisions will have to be based on something and your girlfriend’s ‘experience’ of the medicine can be part of your guide. What makes her feel better?

I recommend Uwe Blesching’s book: Cannabis Health Index http://cannabishealthindex.com/

CBD or cannabidiol is a non-psychoactive compound found in certain strains of cannabis that has potent anti-inflammatory and anti-anxiety effects. Inflammation is the underlying cause of many diseases and conditions. Try tinctures with various ratios to see what works best for you. CBD has very different effects than THC, mainly because of the way it interacts with our endocannabinoid system. CBD works to increase the levels of our bodie’s own cannabinoids (endo-cannabinoids), by preventing their breakdown.

I am not a doctor so I can not comment on CBD vs THC for cancer cells. I would recommend that you read the following articles on Project CBD. I often refer to
Project CBD for articles on CBD and cancer:
https://www.projectcbd.org/cancer

There are many scientific studies that indicate CBD can inhibit cancer cell growth, but these are most often within lab rats or petri dishes. There is a lot of anecdotal story telling around CBD/THC stopping cancer in its tracks or putting it into remission, but these are not based on any clinical trials or concrete evidence (I do not stand agree or disagree with people’s experience). There are new studies underway and one in particular of interest is being done regarding cannabis in conjunction with traditional treatment methods on melanoma and can be viewed in this HelloMD news segment:
https://www.hellomd.com/health-wellness/hellomd-live-episode-8

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I can speak from my own experience that for inflammation a high CBD ratio tincture works very well. I typically consume a 20:1 2x a day for inflammation and I take a low dose of THC every day 2x a day of 2.5 mg which will not have any noticeable psychoactive effect but it does decrease anxiety.

To answer your question more specifically, I would be consuming both CBD and THC as both have systematic effects that may help you. This is called the entourage effect, in that they work together to create homeostasis within the body.

I hope this helps!

Since we have been profoundly handicapped in this country by not being able to do clinical trials regarding the benefits of cannabis, I don’t think anyone has a hard and fast rule around the best ratio of CBD to THC for brain cancer. We do know that CBD does stop some brain cancers and may protects the brain from further damage. The higher the concentration of CBD the more pervasive it is. Rick Simpson oil tends to be a 1:1 ratio but most of the stories of cancer cures are antidotal. I understand that clinical trials are being conducted in Israel so in the meantime consider using your cannabis to buy time in hopes that we will have a more definitive answer in the near future. Since activities are limited when using THC because you’re not allowed to be high in public, I think it is wise to take high CBD during the day and you can do more THC at home. Remember to always follow high THC with high CBD if you want to go to sleep because that will make an Indica in your body.

Unfortunately, there is no exact answer for this question. Many people will use Rick Simpson oil and overtime you will become adjusted to the high so you can function on a day-to-day basis. Chemical testing should have been performed on the oil if you buy it in California through a dispensary or delivery service. Both THC and CBD are toxic to cancer so I give patients the option of going on a super high CBD for daytime use along with RSO for afternoon and evening or CBD during the day and a Sativa in the afternoon returning to CBD at night. I think as long as you’re taking high-dose is of cannabis it does facilitate your immune system in reversing your disease state but until we can actually do clinical trials, keep in mind we are handicapped and all we can truly offer are antidotal stories. I’m certain you want more assurance than just an antidotal story. Most research is being done in Israel at this time but a few clinical trials have been started in the United States, I just can’t tell you if they involve your type of cancer.
Jeanne Achterberg taught us that imagery also works when you’re fighting cancer. When you take a dose of cannabis, Image that each drop is filled with millions of little, microscopic dogs that love you and their whole purpose in life is to help you live by running through your body and eating any cancer cells or cancer garbage they find especially since this is what dogs are good at, eating garbage and loving you for the opportunity. Keep your determination strong and you should be able to overcome the cancer and even buying a couple of years me produce profound benefits for you because our knowledge is increasing exponentially. I had one patient that was able to successfully stop her ovarian cancer by doing a medically supervised fast for 40 days but I’m not advising that for you, I am encouraging you to find what is going to work for you and believing it 100% and then allow it time to work. If you do high CBD, you will not feel the medicine for almost 3 weeks, don’t give up. You are in the battle that is worth fighting, I just wish we had more answers for you.

I am so sorry for anyone who has pancreatic cancer since my Father and his only sister both had pancreatic cancer so I have watched it first hand but that was more than 30 years ago and we have come a ways since then especially with cannabis. We have been lacking credible research studies but one research study has been started in Australia by Chris O’Brein Lifehouse that will study the effects of cannabis on pancreatic cancers.
Since all cancers involve inflammation, CBD or cannabidiol or THCa from juicing green cannabis buds may help to reduce inflammation there by giving relief from the pain and potential GI obstruction. In addition, I highly recommend the topical cannabis salve that is slightly dominant in CBD. Rub the salve on your upper abdomen between the ribs and the area of the upper back that corresponds to the ‘bra line on a woman’ but applying the salve throughout the posterior thoracic spine to stop the pain is greatly beneficial and should be done frequently at first and as the pain is coming under control you may start to spread out the application of the salve. For me, the more I use the salve the more effective the salve is and the longer the pain blocking effect works. The salve will not go systemic on anyone who applies it for you and there will be people who want to help you out in any way they can so please, put them to work applying your salve. If there is some fear of potential contamination with the cannabis, you may supply some gloves.
If you are experiencing too much nausea to do the tincture orally, you could vaporize high CBD cannabis like AC/DC, 30 parts CBD to 9 parts THC, so you may be a little tipsy but you likely will be out of pain in about 10-15 minutes and the AC/DC will calm anxiety so consider a high CBD vaporizing pen for fast relief. Remember, CBDs must be vaporized at a lower temperature or the quality of the CBD will be lost so have someone help you with CBD vape pens if needed.
Good luck, you need to buy time to stay around since there is so much work being done on finding the correct treatment for pancreatic cancer. Hold intention to live and use your mind to be positive to keep your immune system healthy and strong. You may want to do searches on the net for papers you can read on treatment of pancreatic cancer using integrated medicine as well as all the big tools of Western medical treatment because a lot of support is done with healthy nutrition, digestive enzymes and positive imagery and other treatments.

My husband has had good luck controlling the growth of his metastatic colon cancer that has spread to his liver with Cannabis oil. We used 3 different oils for maximum exposure to different terpenes. I would have liked him to try suppositories also, but he is “Rectal-phobic”. The oil was taken by capsule. Three times daily.

I’m sorry to hear you have been diagnosed with breast cancer. There is no reason to smoke or drink. A whole-foods, plant-based diet has been shown to be beneficial for managing cancer symptoms such as pain, fatigue, and apoptosis (cancer cell death.)

The best dosage or best CBD to THC ratio for cancer has many anecdotal answers. If you are looking for a science-based answer regarding using cannabis in cancer please read Dr. Solomon’s answers on this thread. We do know the “high” from THC is definitely modified in character and intensity by the presence of CBD, so finding the right CBD to THC ratio for you would be important. As Dr. Solomon notes, cannabis has a remarkably benign toxicity profile – although too much can be unpleasant there have never been any reports of poisoning or organ damage despite many years of widespread use of the plant. This makes it safe to experiment freely, but still offers no way to judge different recommendations, such as best CBD:THC ratio for cancer. I am usually an “entourage effect” proponent, unwilling to exclude part of the plant when I don’t fully understand what all the parts contribute, so I’m inclined toward more holisitic, “whole plant” preparations. Some varieties are bred to express mostly CBD, so you can still manipulate the CBD:THC ratio by including those. I also think of cannabis as an excellent mood moderator, better than many medications taken daily for this purpose, and in treating cancer I see an important role for this action both for patient comfort and to support the well established relationship between positive attitude and better survival in cancer.

My mother was diagnosed in May of 2013 with 4 Cancer.She was given 3 to 6 months to live,not because of spreading but because of the location of the tumor, it is abutting the aorta. she is 53 and also has MS.I succeeded in saving her life by getting Rick Simpson Oil from this guy in California.You can contact him if interested in getting some Oil:
Email… tplug05 at gmail dot com .
Phone…..+1(559)420-0769 .

My mother was diagnosed in May of 2013 with 4 Cancer.She was given 3 to 6 months to live,not because of spreading but because of the location of the tumor, it is abutting the aorta. she is 53 and also has MS.
I succeeded in saving her life by getting Rick Simpson Oil from this guy in California.You can contact him if interested in getting some Oil:
Email… tplug05 at gmail dot com .
Phone…..+1(559)420-0769 .

Cannabis, cannabinoids and cancer – the evidence so far

The current consensus is that, right now, there isn’t a large enough body of evidence to prove that cannabis (or any of its active compounds or derivatives) can reliably treat any form of cancer but the medical use of cannabis to treat cancer-related chronic pain is approved in the UK.

Cancer Research UK does not have an organisational policy on the legal status of cannabis, its use as a recreational drug, or its medical use diseases other than cancer. But we are supportive of properly conducted scientific research into cannabis and its derivatives that could benefit cancer patients and we will continue to monitor developments in the fields and evidence as it emerges.

For the last couple of decades, one of the most talked about discussions online is whether or not cannabis can treat cancer.

Claims that there is solid “proof” that cannabis or cannabinoids can cure cancer are highly misleading. Unfortunately, there are many unreliable sources of information about cannabis, particularly online.

This post contains up-to-date, evidence-based information on cannabis and cancer.

The basics

What is cannabis?

Cannabis is a plant grown and cultivated commercially across the globe. It is known by many names depending on its preparation and quality, including marijuana, trees, pot, dank, grass, green, kush, weed, hemp, hash, loud, and herb. These usually refer to the dried form or resin of the flowers or leaves of the plant.

There are multiple species of cannabis plant, including Cannabis sativa, Cannabis indica and Cannabis ruderalis.

For thousands of years, it has been used recreationally, religiously, and medically. Records from Ancient Egypt, India, and China show that physicians would use the plant as part of treating ailments such as haemorrhoids, insomnia, and for other pain relief.

In the Western world, cannabis emerged as a mainstream medicine in the 1840s and was noted for its sedative, anti-inflammatory, pain relief, and anticonvulsant effects.

Scientists have identified multiple active compounds within cannabis (known as cannabinoids) that play a role in cannabis’ effects, including the psychoactive delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD).

Cannabinoids – what are they?

Cannabinoids are compounds that can interact with a system inside the body known as the endocannabinoid system.

Most commonly, the term “cannabinoid” is used to refer to the compounds found in cannabis (and other plants). As the body naturally produces cannabinoids itself (known as endocannabinoids), a more accurate term for these is phytocannabinoids (meaning “cannabinoids from plants”).

Researchers have found that cannabis contains over 450 different chemical compounds, many of which are cannabinoids.

The two main cannabinoids of interest to researchers are:

  • Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) – a psychoactive substance that can affect how the brain works, creating a ‘high’ feeling.
  • Cannabidiol (CBD) – may relieve pain, lower inflammation and decrease anxiety without any psychoactive effects.

Is cannabis legal in the UK?

In the UK, medical use of cannabis was legalised in November 2018 and the UK is one of the world’s largest exporters of legal cannabis. However, cannabis is still classified as a class B drug in the UK, meaning that it is illegal to possess or supply it for personal recreational use.

  • Products without THC – legal to buy in the UK as supplements (such as CBD oil or hemp oil).
  • Products containing THC – illegal in the UK for recreational purposes (such as cannabis flower, cannabis oil, edibles, etc).
  • Medicines derived from cannabis – legal in the UK for certain healthcare professionals to prescribe (such as Sativex and Nabilone).

Medical cannabis is only legal when prescribed by a specialist consultant and GPs are not allowed to prescribe cannabis-derived medicines. NHS guidance states that medical cannabis should only be prescribed when there is clear published evidence of its benefit and other treatment options have been exhausted.

How do cannabinoids work inside the body?

Our bodies naturally produce our own cannabinoids (known as endocannabinoids).

These interact with molecules found on the surface of cells (cannabinoid receptors). One type of is densely packed inside the brain and second type is found in our immune tissues.

These compounds and receptors form the endocannabinoid system, a network that is involved in the control and regulation of multiple functions within the body – including memory, sleep, learning, eating, pain control, inflammation, and immune system.

As THC, CBD and other cannabinoids look similar to the endocannabinoids inside the body, they are able to interact with these receptors and affect how the system functions.

This is why some researchers think that cannabinoids have the potential to control some of the most common and debilitating symptoms of cancer and its treatments, including nausea and vomiting, loss of appetite, and pain.

Is all cannabis is the same?

Like how beer, wine, and vodka all have differing levels of alcohol and other ingredients, different strains/types of cannabis have varying levels of THC, CBD, and other compounds. This means that different strains of cannabis can have different effects on the body.

Additionally, its effects also depend on how cannabis is taken, most commonly by inhaling (smoking or vaping) or ingesting (edibles).

When it is inhaled, THC enters the lungs where it passes directly into your bloodstream and then your brain quickly. The effects of inhaled cannabis fade faster than cannabis taken by mouth.

When ingested (such as when it’s used in oils/drinks/baked goods/sweets), edible cannabis travels first to your stomach then to your liver before getting into your bloodstream and brain. The liver converts THC into a stronger compound and this (combined with the THC from the original product) adds to the intensity of the high.

Are there cannabis-based medicines?

Some cannabis-based products are available on prescription. The following medicines are sometimes prescribed to help relieve symptoms.

Nabilone

Nabilone is a drug developed from cannabis. It is licensed for treating severe sickness from chemotherapy that is not controlled by other anti-sickness drugs.

It works very well for some people, but can cause drowsiness or dizziness in others. These side effects can last for a couple of days after you’ve stopped taking it.

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Sativex

Sativex (or nabixmols) is a liquid cannabis-based medicine that you spray into your mouth.

Researchers are looking into Sativex as a treatment for cancer related symptoms and for certain types of cancer.

The research

Is Cancer Research UK investigating cannabinoids?

In the past, Cancer Research UK has funded research into cannabinoids, notably the work of Professor Chris Paraskeva in Bristol investigating the properties of cannabinoids as part of his research into the prevention and treatment of bowel cancer. He has published a number of papers detailing lab experiments looking at endocannabinoids as well as THC, and written a review looking at the potential of cannabinoids for treating bowel cancer.

We have also supported the work of Dr Laureano de la Vega , a Cancer Research UK Fellow at the University of Dundee, who in 2019 started to explore if CBD can limit cancer’s ability to spread, using lung and triple negative breast cancer cells grown in the lab.

We’re also involved in the only 2 UK clinical trials of cannabinoids for treating cancer, mentioned above, through our national network of Experimental Cancer Medicine Centres .

Our funding committees have previously received other applications from researchers who want to investigate cannabinoids but these failed to reach our high standards for funding.

If we receive future proposals that meet these stringent requirements, then there is no reason that they wouldn’t be funded, assuming we have the money available.

Scam warning

Unfortunately, some scammers are using the email address [email protected] and claiming to be based at our head office, tricking cancer patients and their families into handing over money for “cannabis oil”, after which they receive nothing in return. This is a scam and has nothing to do with Cancer Research UK or our employees, as we wrote about in 2015. If you believe you have been a victim of this fraud, please contact the police.

How do researchers study cannabis?

Around the world, many researchers are actively investigating cannabis and cannabinoids, and Cancer Research UK is supporting some of this work.

Generally, the cannabis that researchers study isn’t the same as the one as you might see on the street or oils sold in shops.

When researchers conduct rigorous scientific studies, they often use purified forms of the compounds that they are investigating . This gives us more reliable evidence on the effect of different cannabinoids.

Through many detailed experiments – summarised in this review article from the British Journal of Cancer – scientists have discovered that both natural and synthetic cannabinoids have a wide range of effects on cells, which is why there’s interest in finding out whether it can be a part of treating diseases like cancer, as well as help relieving side effects.

Can cannabinoids treat cancer?

As of 2022, several hundreds of scientific papers looking at cannabinoids, the endocannabinoid system, and the relation to cancer have been published. So far these studies simply haven’t found enough robust scientific evidence to prove that these can safely and effectively treat cancer.

This is because the majority of the scientific research investigating whether cannabinoids can treat cancer has been done using cancer cells grown in the lab or animals. While these studies are a vital part of research, providing early indications of the benefits of particular treatments, they don’t necessarily hold true for people.

Much of the research into cannabinoids and cancer so far has been done in the lab

So far, the best results from lab studies have come from using a combination of highly purified THC and CBD . But researchers have also found positive results using man-made cannabinoids, such as a molecule called JWH-133.

There have been intriguing results from lab experiments looking at a number of different cancers, including glioblastoma brain tumours, prostate, breast, lung, and pancreatic cancers. But the take-home message is that different cannabinoids seem to have different effects on various cancer types, so they are far from being a ‘universal’ treatment.

There’s also evidence that cannabinoids have unwanted effects. Although high doses of THC can kill cancer cells, they also harm crucial blood vessel cells. And under some circumstances, cannabinoids can encourage cancer cells to grow, or have different effects depending on the dose used and levels of cannabinoid receptors present on the cancer cells.

Cannabis in clinical trials

To robustly test the potential benefits of cannabinoids in cancer, clinical trials in large numbers of people with control groups of patients – who aren’t given the treatment in question – would be needed.

A few small clinical trials have been set up to test the benefits of cannabinoids for people with glioblastoma multiforme. Results published from a pilot clinical trial where 9 people with advanced, incurable glioblastoma multiforme – the most aggressive brain tumour – were given highly purified THC through a tube directly into their brain showed that THC given in this way is safe and doesn’t seem to cause significant side effects. But as this was an early stage trial without a control group, it couldn’t show whether THC helped to extend patients’ lives.

And a second clinical trial, supported through our Experimental Cancer Medicine Centre (ECMC) Network, tested whether Sativex (nabiximols), a highly purified pharmaceutical-grade extract of cannabis containing THC, CBD, and other cannabinoids could treat people with glioblastoma multiforme brain tumours that have come back after treatment.

In 2021, scientists reported the final results of this phase 1 study to treat people with recurrent glioblastoma with Sativex in combination with the chemotherapy drug, temozolomide. Researchers found that adding Sativex (patients were allowed to choose the amount they took) had acceptable levels of side effects, which included vomiting, dizziness, fatigue, nausea and headache. They also observed that more patients were alive after one year using Sativex (83%) compared to those taking the placebo (44%). However, this phase 1 study only involved 27 patients, which was too small to confirm any potential benefits of Sativex, and was intended to find out if it was safe to take by patients.

This trial is being extended into phase 2 (known as ARISTOCRAT) to explore if this treatment is effective and which patients are most likely to respond to this treatment. It is set to launch at 15 NHS hospitals in 2022, with over 230 patients to be recruited (and making use of the Cancer Research UK Clinical Trials Unit). To find out more about this work, you can listen to our podcast – That Cancer Conversation – where we hear from Professor Susan Short, one of the researchers leading this study.

We’ve also supported a trial that’s testing the benefits of a man-made cannabinoid called dexanabinol in patients with different types of advanced cancer. The trial finished recruiting in 2015 and researchers established a safe dose of the drug, but further development of the drug was stopped due to a lack of evidence around the drug’s effectiveness. Full trials results are yet to be published.

Groups exploring cannabinoids and cancer

    is researching cannabis and cannabinoids for treating cancer to build up the evidence. He is happy to collect individual stories from UK patients and can be contacted by email. is the lead on the ARISTOCRAT trial that is evaluating the combined use of Sativex and the chemotherapy drug temozolomide treat people with recurrent glioblastoma.
  • The Medical Cannabis Research Group at Imperial College London are exploring cannabinoid use as it relates to potential therapies for inflammation and pain linked to cancer.
  • The charity DrugScience are running Project Twenty21, an observational medical cannabis study in the UK. It is gathering data on the efficacy of cannabis-based medicines for a wide range of conditions (including cancer-related pain, nausea, and anxiety).

Can cannabis prevent cancer?

There is no reliable evidence that cannabis can prevent cancer.

There has been some research suggesting that the body’s endocannabinoids (mentioned earlier) can suppress tumour growth.

When it comes to cannabis, experiments where mice were given very high doses of purified THC showed that they seemed to have a lower risk of developing cancer. But this is not enough solid scientific evidence to suggest that cannabinoids or cannabis can cut people’s cancer risk.

Does cannabis cause cancer?

The evidence is a lot less clear when it comes to whether cannabis itself can cause cancer.

This is because most people who use cannabis smoke it mixed with tobacco, a substance that we know causes cancer. Data from 2016 has shown that 77% of UK people surveyed (who smoke weed) reported normally mixing it with tobacco.

This makes it hard for researchers to disentangle the potential impact of cannabis on cancer risk from the impact of the tobacco. As of 2022, we can’t be sure whether the increased risk is due to tobacco or whether cannabis itself also has an independent effect.

We do know from decades of evidence that there is no safe way to use tobacco – it’s addictive and harmful for your health. People who smoke weed mixed with tobacco increase their risk of cancer and other conditions. Tobacco also contains the very addictive substance nicotine. This means people who regularly smoke weed mixed with tobacco may find it harder to stop.

In addition to this, there have not been published studies looking at cannabis ingestion (such as edibles) and cancer risk, nor vaporised cannabis and cancer risk.

> Read about the free support and quitting tools available to help you to stop smoking for good on our website.

Can cannabis relieve cancer symptoms like pain or sickness?

There’s good evidence that cannabinoids may be beneficial in managing cancer pain and side effects from treatment.

As far back as the 1980s, cannabinoid-based drugs including dronabinol (synthetic THC) and nabilone were used to help reduce nausea and vomiting caused by chemotherapy. But there are now safer and more effective alternatives and cannabinoids tend to only be used where other approaches fail.

In some parts of the world, medical marijuana has been legalised for relieving pain and symptoms (palliative use), including cancer pain. But one of the problems with using herbal cannabis is managing the dose. Smoking cannabis or taking it in the form of tea often provides an inconsistent dose, which may make it difficult for patients to monitor their intake. So, researchers are turning to alternative dosing methods, such as mouth sprays, which deliver a reliable and regulated dose.

Large-scale clinical trials in the UK have been testing whether a mouth spray formulation of Sativex (nabiximols) can help to control severe cancer pain that doesn’t respond to other drugs. Results from these didn’t find any difference in self-reported pain scores between the treatment and the placebo.

Cannabinoids may also have potential in combating the loss of appetite and wasting (cachexia) experienced by some people with cancer, although so far clinical evidence is lacking. One clinical trial comparing appetite in groups of cancer patients given cannabis extract, THC and a placebo didn’t find a difference between the treatments, while another didn’t show any benefit and was closed early.

Questions that still need to be answered

There are still many unanswered questions around the potential for using cannabinoids to treat cancer. It’s not clear:

  • which type of cannabinoid – either natural or synthetic – might be most effective
  • what kind of doses might be needed
  • which types of cancer might respond best to cannabinoids
  • how to avoid the psychoactive effects of THC
  • how best to get cannabinoids, which don’t dissolve easily in water, into cancer cells
  • whether cannabinoids will help to boost or counteract the effects of chemotherapy

These questions must be answered for cannabinoids to be used as safe and effective treatments for cancer patients. It’s the same situation for the many hundreds of other potential cancer drugs being developed and tested in university, charity and industry labs all over the world.

Without doing rigorous scientific research, we will never sift the ‘hits’ from the ‘misses’. If cannabinoids are to get into the clinic, these hurdles first need to be overcome and their benefits proven over existing cancer treatments.

Frequently asked questions (FAQs)

“What’s Cancer Research UK’s view on cannabis and cancer?”

As of 2022, Cannabis is still classified as a class B drug in the UK, meaning that it is illegal to possess or supply it for personal recreational use.

Cancer Research UK does not have an organisational policy on the legal status of cannabis, its use as a recreational drug, or its medical use in any other diseases.

But we are supportive of properly conducted scientific research into cannabis and its derivatives that could benefit cancer patients and we will continue to monitor developments in the fields and evidence as it emerges.

“It’s natural so it must be better, right?”

There’s no doubt that the natural world is a treasure trove of biologically useful compounds, and there are countless examples where these have been harnessed as effective treatments.

Numerous potent cancer drugs have also been developed in this way – purifying a natural compound, improving it and testing it to create a beneficial drug – including taxol, vincristine, vinblastine, camptothecin, colchicine, and etoposide.

But although these purified drugs in controlled high doses can treat cancer, it doesn’t mean that the original plant (or a simple extract) will have the same effect.

So, although cannabis contains certain cannabinoids, it doesn’t automatically follow that cannabis itself can treat cancer.

“But it worked for this patient…”

Doctors sometimes publish case reports about extraordinary or important observations they have seen in their clinic.

For example, there was a case report published in the British Medical Journal describing a woman in her 80s with lung cancer whose tumour shrank after taking CBD oil over several months.

This might seem like a solid bit of proof, but very little reliable information can be taken from a single patient treated with what’s an unknown mix of cannabinoids outside of a controlled clinical setting

The authors state that even though this case appears to demonstrate a possible benefit of CBD oil intake, it’s not possible to confirm that the tumour regression was due to the patient taking CBD oil (as she was also taking drugs for other conditions).

There are also many videos and anecdotes online claiming that people have been completely cured of cancer with cannabis, hemp/cannabis oil or other cannabis derivatives.

Despite what these sources may claim, it’s impossible to tell whether these patients have been ‘cured’ by cannabis or not. There is usually no information about their medical diagnosis, stage of disease, what other cancer treatments they had, or the chemical make-up of their treatment. These sources also only publish the “success stories”, and don’t share how many people who used cannabis or its derivatives had no benefit, or worse, were potentially harmed.

Robust scientific studies describe the detail of experiments and share the results – positive or negative. This is vital for working out whether a potential cancer treatment is truly safe and effective, or not. And publishing this data allows doctors around the world to judge the information for themselves and use it for the benefit and safety of their patients.

This is the standard to which all cancer treatments are held, and it’s one that cannabis and cannabinoids should be held to, too.

“What’s the harm? There’s nothing to lose.”

If someone chooses to complete reject conventional cancer treatment in favour of unproven alternatives, they may miss out on treatment that could save or significantly lengthen their life. They may also miss out on effective symptom relief to control pain or other problems.

Many unproven therapies are also expensive, and aren’t covered by the NHS or medical insurance. In the worst cases, an alternative therapy may even hasten death.

Although centuries of human experimentation tell us that naturally-occurring cannabinoids are broadly safe, they are not without risks. They can increase heart rate, which may cause problems for patients with pre-existing or undiagnosed heart conditions. They can also interact with other drugs in the body, including antidepressants and antihistamines. And they may also affect how the body processes certain chemotherapy drugs, which could cause serious side effects.

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As cannabis is illegal for recreational use in the UK, there are further risks associated with using home-made preparations, particularly cannabis oil, such as toxic chemicals left from the solvents used in the preparation process.

Synthetic cannabinoids (sometimes known as spice) are compounds that have been designed to act like the chemicals found in cannabis but with far stronger effects and have harmful side-effects associated.

There are also many internet scams by people offering to sell cannabis preparations. As well as the risk of getting something with completely unknown chemical or medicinal properties and unknown effectiveness, scammers are tricking cancer patients and their families into handing over money for “cannabis oil” which they then never receive.

We understand the desire to try every possible avenue when conventional cancer treatment fails. But there is little chance that an unproven alternative treatment bought online will help, and it may well harm. We recommend that cancer patients talk to their doctor about clinical trials that they may be able to join, giving them access to new drugs in a safe and monitored environment.

“Are cancer charities hiding cannabis as a cure?”

The idea that a cure already exists is one of the many myths that surrounds cancer that we have written about.

This myth is unjust to the thousands of scientists, doctors and nurses working as hard as they can to beat cancer, and to the many thousands of people in the UK and beyond who give up their time and money to fund our work.

History shows that the best way to beat cancer is through rigorous scientific research. This approach has helped to change the face of cancer prevention, diagnosis, treatment, leading to increased survival in the last few decades .

As a research-based organisation, we want to see reliable scientific evidence to support claims made about any cancer treatment, be it conventional or alternative. This is vital because lives are at stake. Some people may think that a cancer patient has nothing to lose by trying an alternative treatment, but there are big risks.

“Big Pharma can’t patent it so they’re not interested.”

Some people argue that the potential of cannabinoids is being ignored by pharmaceutical companies, because they can’t patent the chemicals naturally occurring in cannabis plants. But there are many ways that these compounds can be patented – for example, by developing more effective lab-made versions or better ways to deliver them.

Other people argue that patients should be treated with homegrown cannabis preparations, and that the research being done by companies is solely to make money and prevent patients accessing “the cure”

The best chance of ensuring that the potential benefits of cannabinoids – whether natural or man-made – can be brought to patients is through research using quality-controlled, safe, legal, pharmaceutical grade preparations containing known amounts of the drugs.

This requires time, effort and money, which may come from companies or independent organisations such as charities or governments. And, ultimately, this investment needs to be paid back by sales of a safe, effective new drug.

It’s true that there are issues around drug pricing and availability and we’re pushing for companies to make new treatments available at a fair price. We would hope that if cannabinoids were to be shown to be safe and effective enough to make it to the clinic, they would be made available at a fair price for all patients who might benefit from them.

In summary

Right now, there simply isn’t enough evidence to prove that cannabinoids – whether natural or synthetic – can effectively treat cancer in patients, although research is ongoing. And there’s certainly no evidence that cannabis bought on the street can treat cancer.

We’re supportive of properly conducted scientific research into cannabis and its derivatives that could benefit cancer patients. Many researchers are actively exploring this approach, and Cancer Research UK is supporting, and will continue to support, scientifically robust research into cannabis and cannabinoids that reaches the high-quality standards set by our funding committees.

References and further reading:

  • Cancer Research UK – Cannabis, CBD oil and cancer
  • NHS – Medical cannabis (and cannabis oils)
  • National Cancer Institute (US) – Information about cannabis and cannabinoids for cancer patients
  • National Cancer Institute (US) – Information about cannabis and cannabinoids for health professionals
  • Velasco, G., Sánchez, C. & Guzmán, M. (2012). Towards the use of cannabinoids as antitumour agents, Nature Reviews Cancer, 12 (6) 444. DOI: 10.1038/nrc3247
  • Sarfaraz, S. et al (2008). Cannabinoids for Cancer Treatment: Progress and Promise, Cancer Research, 68 (2) 342. DOI: 10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-07-2785
  • Guindon, J. & Hohmann, A.G. (2011). The endocannabinoid system and cancer: therapeutic implication, British Journal of Pharmacology, 163 (7) 1463. DOI: 10.1111/j.1476-5381.2011.01327.x
  • Engels, F.K. et al (2007). Medicinal cannabis in oncology, European Journal of Cancer, 43 (18) 2644. DOI: 10.1016/j.ejca.2007.09.010
  • Twelves, C., Sabel, M., Checketts, D. et al (2021). A phase 1b randomised, placebo-controlled trial of nabiximols cannabinoid oromucosal spray with temozolomide in patients with recurrent glioblastoma. British Journal of Cancer 124, 1379–1387. DOI: 10.1038/s41416-021-01259-3
  • Cannabinoids in the treatment of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting – Todaro (2012) Journal of the National Comprehensive Cancer Network
  • Bowles, D.W. et al (2012). The intersection between cannabis and cancer in the United States, Critical Reviews in Oncology/Hematology, 83 (1) 10. DOI: 10.1016/j.critrevonc.2011.09.008
  • Hall, W., Christie, M. & Currow, D. (2005). Cannabinoids and cancer: causation, remediation, and palliation, The Lancet Oncology, 6 (1) 42. DOI: 10.1016/S1470-2045(04)01711-5 . , Wai Liu, The Conversation – University of Birmingham
  • Nutt D, Bazire S, Phillips LD, et al (2020) So near yet so far: why won’t the UK prescribe medical cannabis? BMJ Open 10:e038687. DOI: 10.1136/bmjopen-2020-038687
  • Mangal, N., Erridge, S., Habib, N., Sadanandam, A., Reebye, V., & Sodergren, M. H. (2021). Cannabinoids in the landscape of cancer. Journal of cancer research and clinical oncology, 147(9), 2507–2534. DOI: 10.1007/s00432-021-03710-7

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Comments

As a terminal liver cancer patient at the age of 31 I would try anything at this point as I have nothing else to loose. I don’t know why a significant amount of research hasn’t taken place as of yet when it should be done, even if it can help some patients and not all. It’ should be tested and given as a choice. The fact that we can not easily access it either is terrible yes it may not be a cure but it may help in some way and that’s the most important for cancer patients suffering

Thank you for most informative update. It’s a subject I’m most interested in and feel sure that the natural plant can produce some amazing results.

Until you’re a terminal cancer patient you just wont understand the desperation to live as long as possible, even if it were mere days extra time. I would try anything for extra time with loved ones.
I can’t believe there isn’t more research into cannabis and cancer. And for those that say “well it doesn’t work for everybody” guess what conventional cancer treatment doesn’t either.
Stage 4 cancer = no cure, terminal in most cases.

Why is it that charities raking in millions every year can find the evidence of cannabis for not treating cancer but cant find the overwhelming evidence that it can and does treat cancer ?

Great reading I have lung cancer I’m being treated with chemo now and would be interested in a trail it’s small cell lung cancer

Without full spectrum cannabis oil my life around a year into breast cancer I doubt I would be here now

It has enabled me to come off opioids and live a semi normal life

It sickens me to think drs happily give out meds that are killing people but won’t give out a herb that has O deaths yes Zero

I have even contacted professor Mike barns pleading with him to help me find a trial but guess what not one in the uk

The fact cannabis is illegal in this county is all political and NOTHING to do with our health

It’s about time charity’s like yours start campaigning for us, most of us medical cannabis users are spending far to much on it in order to feel well I echo what another commenter said that all stage 4 should be at least offered cannabis as an alternative

Also why can’t the hospital doctors give medical cannabis too relieve sickness and pain of cancer it’s cruel

I think that medical cannabis should be given too all stage 4 cancer patients that are told it’s aggressive and treatment wont help under medical care it could be done safely then with trial an error they will know if it works legalise cannabis for the sick wake up Boris

Thank you for sharing this amazing blog. It is easy to learn and understand. It’s a truly useful blog.

“Why don’t you campaign for cannabis to be legalised?” Your answer was ridiculous that’s all you said was that it’s illegal to possess or buy or what ever I think the question was why won’t you campaign to have it legal so then it can be tested more . Don’t beat around the bush ( No pun intended) just say it’s not worth the effort for the money you would have to spend .

this blog post is very perfect and has a lot of very vital info, thanks so much for this work

We’ve recently seen stories in the press claiming that the US government has “admitted that cannabis kills cancer” (for example, this one in the Metro), based on the observation that pages on the US National Cancer Institute information website carry details of the current scientific evidence around the effects of cannabis and cannabinoids on cancer cells in the lab and animal models.

The first thing to point out is that the NCI’s cancer information website is an independent resource for doctors and the patients, and is not a statement of NIH, NCI or US government policy.

Furthermore, the information on these pages isn’t new, nor is it an ‘admission’ of any kind: the scientific evidence about cannabis, cannabinoids and cancer, which these media stories are referring to, has been openly published on the NCI’s website for several years – for example, see this page from the same section of the NIH website on cannabis and cannabinoids from 2011, accessed via the internet archive.

We often see websites with long lists of scientific papers claiming that cannabis is a “cure” for various cancers. However, when we look at the detail of the data and the experimental detail of the research, it becomes clear that although they may be interesting and build evidence to show that cannabinoids may one day bring benefits for cancer patients, they are far from being a cure.

The main point to realise is that virtually all these studies have been done in cancer cells grown in the lab or in animals. These are quite artificial systems and are much less complex than a real cancer growing in a patient.

For example, most experiments with cells grown in the lab use cancer cells that were originally taken from a tumour many years ago, but have been grown for a long time in the lab – known as cell lines. One problem with such cells is that they are all very similar on a genetic and molecular level, but we know that in real cancers, the cells can be very different from each other and respond in different ways to treatments. Also the usual way of testing cannabinoids in animals has been done by transplanting cancer cells (either mouse or human) into mice. Usually only a small number (5-20) will be used for each experiment.

There’s growing evidence that these particular kinds of models (known as xenografts) aren’t as good at suggesting a treatment could work, compared to more sophisticated genetically engineered animals, as they don’t accurately represent the situation in real tumours. So although these kinds of experiments can point towards useful approaches, as well as revealing the underlying molecular ‘nuts and bolts’ of what’s going on, they can’t tell us if something will definitely treat cancer effectively and safely in human patients. They do not “prove that cannabis cures cancer”, as the headlines would have us believe.

Put simply, Petri dishes are not people. Most chemicals that show promise in lab or animal experiments turn out not to work as well as hoped when tested in patients. These kinds of human studies, known as clinical trials, are the only way we can really know if a cancer treatment is effective. There’s more about clinical trials on our website: http://www.cancerresearchuk.org/cancer-help/trials/types-of-trials/

It’s also important to think about what’s being claimed when people use the word “cure”. To most people, including us, this means that a cancer is completely treated and does not come back. When we look at the data in the papers listed below, none of them come close to showing these kinds of results. For the experiments involving cells grown in the lab, a proportion of the cells are killed or stop growing, but some of them carry on. Similarly in animal experiments, there is no data that shows a 100 per cent success rate for cannabinoids. For example, most mice treated with cannabinoids will still have tumours, although the cancers may be growing more slowly and spread less in some of them.

This isn’t just true for cannabinoids – it’s true for virtually all cancer drugs used today. Cancer is a very complex biological problem – there are hundreds of different types of cancer, each with important molecular and genetic differences. There’s good evidence to show that every individual’s cancer is as unique as they are, and that tumours can evolve and change within the body to become resistant to treatments.

We know that cancer drugs don’t work for everyone all the time – that’s why there’s so much effort going on to find more effective treatments – but it’s vital that doctors have a solid body of evidence showing how well the treatments they’re using are likely to work. If you or someone you loved were going to take any kind of drug, would you be happy if it had only been tested in very high doses on cancer cell lines grown in the lab, or in mice injected with cancer cells? Or would you want to know that it had been trialled in large numbers of people, and there was good data on how effective it is, whether it’s safe in the dose given, what the side effects are, and the proportion of people that can be expected to get better?

This kind of evidence can only come from a combination of lab studies leading to clinical trials. At the moment, while there are hundreds of interesting lab studies of cannabinoids (just some of which are included in the list below) there is only one clinical trial that has been published. So for now, cannabinoids, whether natural or synthetic, are a very long way from being what we would describe as a “cure” for any type of cancer.

We’ve looked at each of the papers in one of the commonly-seen lists (for example, here), and noted down the kinds of experiments they are. Many of them are available as open access papers, so it’s possible to look at the data for yourself. Hopefully this is a useful explanation of the kind of scientific research that is currently ongoing into cannabinoids and cancer, and the process of gathering evidence to show whether a potential cancer therapy works.