Buy the best CBD Oil from leading brands at our UK CBD Shop. Order CBD Gummies, Cannabidiol Oil, CBD Capsules, Vegan CBD Gummy Bears, CBD Creams and Topicals, CBD Vapes, Cannabidiol Skincare and Cosmetics. New scientific data shows that CBD interacts directly with the CB1 cannabinoid receptor in ways that are therapeutically relevant while modulating the psychoactive effects of THC. Cannabidiol (CBD) is a naturally occurring, non-psychotropic cannabinoid of the hemp plant <i>Cannabis sativa</i> L. and has been known to induce several physiological and pharmacological effects. While CBD is approved as a medicinal product subject to prescription, it is also widely sold over the c …
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Legalizing CBD and its related products in the United States led to the production of various products for individual use. The products can be accessed in different potencies and concentrations as individuals can purchase them from offline and online stores and company websites. This article explains whether CBD oil can be purchased from an online platform.
CBD oil as a CBD product has gained popularity with individuals purchasing it in cumbersome. It is because of its ease of use, efficiency, and sensitivity. It is a better option for most individuals as it can be purchased both online and offline depending on an individual shopping preference. During purchase, an individual should be keen on product composition as some cannot be eligible for individual use. When purchasing, a person should consider buying from a place or store that can offer refunds and has better customer relationships to help know the quality of their products.
How To Buy CBD Oil Online?
Before purchasing CBD oil products online, understand the reason for making the purchase and the required product. After determining the need for CBD oil, look for CBD oil products solely because of the many products on the market. There are many properties of CBD, and the products from it come in many different forms, types, and tastes as per an individual’s want. Also, one should know that countries can individually legibly allow the shipping of CBD oil products. McGregor et al. (2020) stated that CBD products could be shipped to over 40 countries and all 50 American states. Marijuana is illegal in most states as it is not easily transported across many countries.
Is Buying CBD Oil Online Legal?
It is legal for an individual to buy CBD oil products online. But the products should be extracted from the hemp plant, a non-psychoactive plant with fewer THC levels of about 0.3%. Moeller et al. (2021) explained that individuals buying or selling CBD oil products with more than 0.03% is illegal, whether through an online platform or retail store. The Farm Bill in 2018 allowed all companies abiding by the Bill to deliver and sell products through the online platform. Any product from CBD oil that meets the regulated guidelines can be purchased online, shipped, and delivered to an individual’s homestead.
Factors To Consider When Buying CBD Oil Online
The quality of the product
Third-party testing lab results
CBD oil products have flooded the market, making it easier for individuals to make the purchases they need. How the products are used is not important but where the product is accessed and bought is the real deal. Products accessed from the online platform should be legal and free from harmful substances that can cause adverse effects on a person. An individual should be keen when purchasing illegal products of low quality.
Mcgregor, I. S., Cairns, E. A., Abelev, S., Cohen, R., Henderson, M., Couch, D., . & Gauld, N. (2020). Access To Cannabidiol Without A Prescription: A Cross-Country Comparison And Analysis. International Journal Of Drug Policy, 85, 102935.
Moeller, K., Munksgaard, R., & Demant, J. (2021). Illicit Drug Prices And Quantity Discounts: A Comparison Between A Crypto Market, Social Media, And Police Data. International Journal Of Drug Policy, 91, 102969.
CBD OIL VS CBD TINCTURE: WHAT’S THE DIFFERENCE?
Manufacturers are producing various CBD products for therapeutic, medicinal, and recreational uses. However, users need to find specific products to ensure they use them effectively. This article explains the differences between CBD oil and CBD tinctures, including their benefits and side effects.
Cannabidiol (CBD) is derived from the hemp plant. Ideally, hemp is a cannabis derivative with a lower concentration of THC. During CBD extraction, the cannabis derivative is subjected to an intense process that eliminates THC and other components of cannabis (cannabinoids). Since its legalization in many countries like the US, varieties of CBD-related products have flooded the cannabis market. These include, tincture, sprays, oils, and lotions, among other products. Distinguishing among these products requires users to understand the components of these products.
CBD oil is a blend of CBD extract and carrier oil like MCT oil, coconut oil, or olive oil. During manufacturing, CBD and sometimes flavonoids and terpenes are extracted from the cannabis plant and mixed with a suitable carrier oil to produce full-spectrum CBD oil. Mead (2017) explained that CBD isolates oil excludes all cannabinoids making the pure spectrum CBD; contains less than 0.3% THC. Some common advantages of CBD oil include;
• Easy to dose
• Best for topical use
• Can be added to food
• Contains many flavours and potency options
This is an alcohol-based extract of CBD. Nahar et al. (2021) noted that the extraction of CBD tinctures uses alcohol as the solvent. The alcohol solvent protects the cannabinoids from oxidation, preserving them for a long. Additionally, the alcohol solvent requires less filtration and refinement during manufacture. Unlike CBD oil, the tinctures can have bitter flavours. CBD tinctures are not as common as CBD oil because of their bitter taste. Most tincture products are available in oil form. Some common advantages of CBD tinctures are;
• Easy to dose
• Can be added to beverages and food
• Rapid onset effects when sublingually consumed
• Are not easily available
• Not effective when used topically
• Have bitter flavor
Which Is Better?
Both CBD tincture and CBD oil are effective, but a major difference comes from the production process and the ingredients base. Individuals should consider their goals and preferences when choosing between the two products. Barrie et al. (2019) explained that when an individual is allergic to the carrier oil in CBD oil, they can opt for an alcohol-based CBD tincture. Also, CBD oil has fewer ingredients compared to CBD tincture.
Manufacturers produce different CBD products to meet the diverse need of consumers. Consumers should go for products that suit their needs. While CBD oil and tincture can be used sublingually, consumers should consider the impact of alcohol and alcohol-free products on their bodies.
Barrie, A. M., Gushue, A. C., &Eskander, R. N. (2019). Dramatic response to Laetrile and cannabidiol (CBD) oil in patients with metastatic low-grade serous ovarian carcinoma. Gynecologic oncology reports, 29, 10.
Mead, A. (2017). The legal status of cannabis (marijuana) and cannabidiol (CBD) under US law. Epilepsy &Behavior, 70, 288-291.
Nahar, L., Uddin, S. J., Alam, M. A., & Sarker, S. D. (2021). Extraction of naturally occurring cannabinoids: an update. Phytochemical analysis, 32(3), 228-241.
HOW DO YOU USE CBD OIL TINCTURES?
CBD oil tinctures provide a unique variant of the traditional CBD oil, creating a new product for users allergic to non-alcoholic cannabinoids. This article highlights how to use CBD oil, including sublingually, orally, and adding it to foods and beverages.
CBD oil tinctures are mainly consumed sublingually. CBD oil tinctures are mostly extracted from cannabis leaves, flowers, and seeds and added with carrier oils. They are very effective and have gained popularity because of their immediate effect on users. With the legalization of CBD products in countries like the US, many products have flooded the CBD market, providing wider choices to the growing number of CBD users. The article discusses how to use CBD oil tinctures for optimum treatment outcomes.
CBD Oil Tinctures
They are manufactured by infusing CBD into alcohol or some carrier oil. The result is some liquid extract that allows one to enjoy all the benefits of cannabis without vaping or smoking. Datta et al. (2018) explained that most tincture comes in smell-proof, sealed, and small bottles, which are easy to store and carry around. They are a cleaner and healthier to consume CBD. Individuals using tinctures can get precise doses of cannabinoids unlike CBD smokers who cannot tell the number of cannabinoids they have consumed. Users should utilise a dropper when consuming tinctures as gives an accurate method to dose.
How to Use CBD Oil Tincture
CBD tinctures can be used orally, added to foods, or sublingually.
Sublingual application entails loading the dropper with the desired amount, then spurting the content under the tongue. The liquid is held in the tongue for around 60 seconds and then swished around the mouth before swallowing. Chang (2020) stated that this allows CBD in tincture to be absorbed through the sublingual membrane under the tongue. The effect can be felt within 30 minutes and last more than 2 hours
CBD oil tinctures can be swallowed to produce the desired effects. One can swallow the tincture and allow it through the digestive system. The effect can be felt within 1 hour and lasts up to 5 hours.
Adding to beverages and foods
Tinctures can be added to food or beverage to help mask the grassy taste. They can be used in coffee or mixed in pudding and yogurt. The onset is similar to edibles.
With the many options of CBD products in the market, CBD oil tinctures are taking over because of their efficiency and convenience. Individuals can feel the effects within a short period, which results in faster effects. Consumers should seek a doctor’s prescription on the dosage to prevent adverse effects from CBD oil tinctures.
Chang, M. (2020). Medical Marijuana (Cannabinoid-Derived Products) for Cancer Patients. Oncology Issues, 35(3), 38-44.
Datta, P., Mohi, G. K., &Chander, J. (2018). High-Quality PTFE Thread Seal Tape. Journal of Laboratory Physicians, 10(1), 6.
How Much CBD Should I Take for Sleep?
The cannabinoid is widely apparated by many for its health benefits on the body, both internal and external. Sleep is important, just like, exercise, and having a good diet can lead to a healthy life.
However, most people tend to have them because they are too busy at work and forget the importance of rest for the body. Getting good sleep is essential for productivity. There are many sleeping pills administered to people with sleep problems. However, they tend to have different side effects such as headaches and increased fatigue. People have turned to use CBD, a natural remedy to curb sleep issues and has no serious side effects on the body.
Cannabinoids can help improve sleep problems. Although the research about hemp and the cannabis-derived compound is in its early stages, it has proved reliable and effective in the reviews of different consumers. MacCallum & Russo (2018) showed that 160 milligrams of CBD are good for sleep, but it is good to start slowly adding till you get the amount that can serve you best.
Poor sleep can be caused by different factors such as mental disorders, pain, medicines, an unconducive environment (noisy), and taking too much caffeine before going to bed. Due to the advancement of technology, the blue-ray lights affected can lead to poor sleep since they tend to affect melatonin, a compound forum in the brain that aids the awake and fall asleep pattern. Therefore, external factors, such as noise and caffeine, need your activities to improve sleep.
CBD can help improve sleep patterns by targeting the root causes, such as pain and mental disorders. Pain can be acute or severe, making it hard to have a good night’s sleep despite the severity. According to Überall (2020), CBD can relieve local and chronic non-cancer pain. This is the main reason for the widespread of CBD and is also used for treating arthritis and multiple sclerosis characterized by severe pain.
Mental unrest can also cause poor sleep. The body and mind need to be relaxed to get good quality sleep. CBD is believed to have a soothing bust and does not cause a high feeling.
CBD can help with different sleep problems, but it is good to know your sleep issue and the dosage and mode of administration. For example, CBD taken through vaping is good when you have problems falling asleep because it is fast to kick in. CBD edibles are good for staying asleep since they are believed to stay in the body system for long.
Maccallum, C. A., & Russo, E. B. (2018). Practical Considerations In Medical Cannabis Administration And Dosing. European Journal Of Internal Medicine, 49, 12-19.
Überall, M. A. (2020). A Review Of Scientific Evidence For THC: CBD Oromucosal Spray (Nabiximols) In Chronic Pain Management. Journal Of Pain Research, 13, 399.
CBD Gummy Bears
CBD gummies have been shown to have many health benefits. Many people wish to try it out. This article covers the basic concepts to help users determine whether CBD could help them.
Cannabidiol gummies are palatable foods infused with cannabidiol (CBD) oil. They exist in different cannabidiol concentrations, shapes, colors, and flavors. Gummies provide a convenient and discreet strategy for consuming daily CBD dosage. Since purity and potencies vary with manufacturers, this blog explores their safety to consumers.
Do CBD Gummies Cause a High Effect?
Cannabidiol gummies are palatable foods infused with CBD oil. The oil extract determines whether gummies will cause psychoactive and euphoric effects. CBD oil comes in broad-spectrum, isolates, and full-spectrum extracts. Broad-spectrum consists of all hemp components like essential fatty acids, terpenes, flavonoids, cannabinol, and cannabigerol, except tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). Isolate CBD is the purest cannabidiol extract since it constitutes high cannabidiol amounts while eliminating other plant elements. Full-spectrum contains complete hemp compounds, including THC. Tetrahydrocannabinol, a cannabis compound, generates psychoactive and euphoric effects. Das et al. (2021) showed that consumers sensitive to this compound should consider a broad spectrum and isolates gummies. Full-spectrum has THC traces, although below 0.3 percent THC. Ingesting excessive amounts might cause a psychoactive feeling and mild side effects. It also causes an individual to fail drug screening tests. Newcomers should consider THC-free cannabidiol gummies, which provide benefits without causing high effects. However, full-spectrum creates an entourage effect, amplifying each element’s benefits.
Are CBD Gummies Beneficial?
Mental instability and physical disorders trigger energy deficiency and physical weakness. Depression and anxiety disorders are characterized by significant symptoms, including numbness, fatigue, and low energy. An energetic person resolves anxiety and stress disorders better. Cannabidiol-infused gummies show significant results when consumed by people with these problems. Sallaberry & Astern (2018) noted that the human body contains the endocannabinoid system (ECS), which maintains homeostasis or natural balance. This equilibrium is important to execute biological functions in your body. It escalates body immunity and decreases health complications. The cannabidiol content in gummies helps inherent endocannabinoids in retaining homeostasis. Individuals with improved immunity and more energy balance have low chances of contracting anxiety and stress. Cannabidiol gummies also contain antioxidants, vitamins, omega-3 fatty acids, carbohydrates, and magnesium that counteracts stress disorders. Furthermore, they have beta carotene, calcium, magnesium, vitamins, iron, fiber, essential fatty acids, and protein. These elements form a balanced diet that maintains the consumer’s body healthy.
Cannabidiol gummies are palatable foods infused with cannabidiol (CBD) oil. Manufacturers have them in isolates, full-and broad-spectrum varieties. Isolate CBD and broad-spectrum cannabidiol gummies are THC-free, implying consumers enjoy benefits without experiencing high effects. CBD gummies are suitable for consumption following their numerous benefits.
Das, S., Mandal, V., & Mandal, N. C. (2021). Broad‐Spectrum Antimicrobial Efficacy Of Pediococcus Acidilactici LAB001 Against Food Spoilage And Toxigenic Bacteria And Fungi. Journal Of Food Processing And Preservation, 45(1), E15066.
Sallaberry, C. A., & Astern, L. (2018). The Endocannabinoid System, Our Universal Regulator. Journal Of Young Investigators, 34(6).
ARE CBD GUMMIES LEGAL IN ALL STATES?
The US legalized hemp cultivation through the Farm Bill of 2018. However, not all states in the US allow the commercial use of CBD. This article explains whether CBD gummies are legal in all the states in the US.
The 2018 farm bill only allowed the commercial us of CBD with specific levels of CBD. Marijuana CBD and products are still illegal in the United States because of the amount of THC. Marijuana has about 90% THC. This product is psychoactive and can make the user “high.” In contrast CBD contains 0.03% of THC level. Therefore, the CBD gummies can be harnessed for its benefits without getting intoxicated.
CBD Gummies Use In The 50 States
The Farm Bill signed in 2018 does not change the legality of hemp-derived cannabis. The senate could legalize hemp nationwide, but the final Farm Bill allowed each state to take responsibility for the hemp cultivation. Van Dolah et al. (2019) explained that CBD gummies are not legal in all 50 states, even if derived from hemp. In the United States, each state has its Controlled Substance Act that looks upon the federal law on substances. In some states, hemp is equated to marijuana. Out of the 50 states, 36 have legalized hemp cultivation; in others, it is still illegal. Even the grouping, distribution, and commercial manufacturing laws greatly differ.
With some states’ legalization, there is still some misunderstanding between law enforcement from interstates levels. When hemp is transported from one state to another, there is always the risk of cargo seizure, even with the state’s destination or origin. Some states allow hemp-based products but smokeable, while other do not.
CBD gummies are legal in most states of the US. The US senate provides a legal framework implementable in all the 50 states. However, it does not compel the states to adopt the bills homogenously. Hence, every state has powers to determine how to implement the commercial application of CBD. Individuals should be keen on which states they are using hemp or purchasing it to prevent legal consequences. Users should also opt for products with less than 0.03% THC; these products are not only legal but also less intoxicating.
VanDolah, H. J., Bauer, B. A., &Mauck, K. F. (2019, September). Clinicians’ guide to cannabidiol and hemp oils. Mayo Clinic Proceedings (Vol. 94, No. 9, pp. 1840-1851). Elsevier.
ARE CBD GUMMIES SAFE?
CBD gummies are a product of CBD with a sweet flavor, more like candy infused with CBD. Read below to learn more about how safe CBD gummies are safe.
The Safety Of CBD Gummies
The safest method of consuming CBD is orally through a tincture, tablet, or as a gummy. Doctors recommend avoiding synthetic CBD products labeled as bath salts or spices because they have been shown to induce serious health disorders like psychotic reactions and skin diseases. Most adults who have tried CBD products have claimed that they are safe even for daily use, even though they may have certain side effects. Examples of the side effects include fatigue, nausea, and irritability. However, if these side effects prolong for weeks, it is best to stop using and check in with a qualified health professional.
According to Shannon et al. (2016), CBD gummies and most CBD products have shown great potential in treating many illnesses. An advantage of CBD gummies is that they have added flavors that mask CBD’s nutty taste and smell. Additionally, CBD gummies are a recommended mode of ingesting CBD, even though it takes time before reaching the bloodstream. CBD gummies can stay in the body for up to 12 hours, making them convenient for combating chronic conditions such as arthritis and chronic pain. Generally, CBD products are safe for use. However, individuals on medication are advised to steer clear of CBD because mixing the two can cause adverse effects on the body.
One advantage of CBD gummies is that they contain a small amount of CBD in each packaging, meaning that individuals will have to consume more CBD gummies for the desired effect. Zenone et al. (2021) showed that CBD gummies are the safest option for people looking for dietary supplements only if they use the product following the brand’s instructions.
When purchasing CBD gummies, there are a few factors to consider to ensure that they purchase grade A gummies for the best possible effects. It is vital to use CBD gummies infused with natural ingredients, flavors, or scents. It will reduce the risk of consuming products that will not pose a health risk to the body. Organic ingredients also boost the quality of products because they do not interfere with the chemical composition of CBD and the gummy.
Individuals looking to purchase CBD gummies should check the ingredients list to see if it contains gelatin, sugar, and juice concentrate. If the CBD gummy contains added ingredients that are not organic, it should not be purchased. Additionally, it is worth considering the type of CBD added to the gummy. Be it broad-spectrum, isolate, or full-spectrum, the label on the packaging should indicate and also provide the source of the CBD.
CBD products are generally safe even though it takes time before an individual experiences its effects. However, unlike other CBD products, CBD gummies last longer, and their effects last longer in the body.
Shannon, S., & Opila-Lehman, J. (2016). Effectiveness of cannabidiol oil for pediatric anxiety and insomnia as part of posttraumatic stress disorder: a case report. The Permanente Journal, 20(4).
Zenone, M. A., Snyder, J., & Crooks, V. (2021). Selling cannabidiol products in Canada: A framing analysis of advertising claims by online retailers. BMC public health, 21(1), 1-10.
DO CBD GUMMIES HELP WITH ANXIETY?
Anxiety disorders have risen exponentially although little therapeutic options exist. However, CBD gummies provide a convenient alternative for anxiety-related conditions. This article explains how CBD gummies can treat anxiety.
CBD gummies provide a convenient alternative for anxiety control without the earthy taste attributed to CBD. They are palatable, convenient, and easy to use and access. Unlike tinctures, dosing CBD gummies is easier as they come in exact and discreet dosages. Studies have shown that CBD reduces anxiety and depression-related conditions. Hence, CBD infused in gummies provides an alternative product option for anxiety. Similarly, CBD gummies lack THC; hence they cannot make the user “high.”
CBD Gummies and Anxiety
Anxiety is caused by stress, among other factors. Ideally, stress is a risk factor for anxiety because of the chemistry between the brain and medical conditions. Liu (2019) explained that CBD gummies treat anxiety by lowering the stress levels in the body. CBD contains anti-anxiety and anti-depressant, which relaxes the mind. Consequently, it suppresses anxiety, depression, and stress when consumed. Stokowski (2022) explained that CBD gummies’ effect on the body depends on an individual’s metabolism rate and body weight; the effect could take hours to manifest in some people compared to others. However, once the effect manifests, it lasts for a few hours.
How To Choose Best CBD Gummies For Anxiety?
When choosing a CBD gummy for anxiety, it is important to consider the quality, safety and transparency in the production of these items. They include;
• The companies should provide third-party lab test results from a private lab.
• The source of hemp should be disclosed.
• The CBD gummies should not contain more than 0.03% THC levels
• A Certificate of Analysis should show negative tests on heavy metals and pesticides.
CBD gummies can be used to reduce anxiety symptoms. The gummies contain several vital components that synergize to suppress factors that lead to stress. For example, CBD gummies treat pain and inflammation in different organs. Notably, pain and inflammation contribute significantly to stress. Therefore, when CBD gummies suppress pain, they alleviate stress, a precursor of anxiety and depression. Lastly, users of CBD gummies can enjoy the product without experiencing severe side effects. However, the outcome of the product is confounded by weight and the individual’s body metabolism.
Liu, T. (2019). What is CBD Oil? Learn the Facts: Uses, Benefits, and Side Effects.
Stojkovski, K. (2022). PhenQ Reviews 2022: Does This Weight Loss Supplement Work?. ORDER, 8, 00.
DO CBD GUMMIES HELP WITH PAIN?
Consumers are using a different substance as a convectional alternative to aid in relieving pain. CBD is one of the substances that is used in pain alleviation. With the legalization, many CBD products have been produced, like CBD gummies. This article explains whether CBD gummies can help with the pain.
CBD gummies are other products have gained popularity. Many people opt for gummies because of their good taste; they are easy and convenient for personal use. This product is used for different purposes by consumers. Some use it for recreational purposes, while others for health benefits. CBD infused in gummies contains health benefits like reducing pain, inflammation, anxiety, and depression. These are claims from consumers using CBD gummies, but they are anecdotal. When purchasing such products, one should consider CBD gummies with no more than 0.3% THC level, as THC is not legally accepted because of its properties.
CBD Gummies and Pain
According to Johnson et al. (2013), CBD gummies make an individual calm and relaxed when consumed. CBD has been generally used in helping manage and reduce symptoms of pain, inflammation, and other conditions that may make a person uncomfortable. VanDolah et al. (2019) also noted that people with chronic pain can use CBD gummies as an alternative for pain reduction. Although the FDA does not regulate it, many people still use it as a pain reliever.
CBD Gummies and Chronic Pain
CBD gummies, when ingested, interact with receptors in the ECS that manage a person’s immune system and brain. Close et al. (2021) explained that the interaction of CBD from gummies with the receptors helps create pain-relieving and anti-inflammatory effects that help manage pain. Thus, people with any pain, chronic or mild, can consume CBD gummies to help in the management.
CBD Gummies and Arthritis Pain
Arthritis is a risk factor for pain in a person as its symptoms include swelling of the joints, widespread pain in body joints, numbness, and stiffness. CBD gummies can reduce swelling and joint pains. People experience different feelings from the relieving effect of CBD from gummies as each person has different body functions and processes.
CBD gummies can aid in pain management because the CBD infused in the gummies has some pain-relieving and anti-inflammatory effects. When consumed, a person can feel calm and relaxed as the pain is reduced.
Close, G. L., Gillham, S. H., & Kasper, A. M. (2021). Cannabidiol (CBD) and the athlete: Claims, evidence, prevalence, and safety concerns. Sports Science Exchange, 213.
Johnson, J. R., Lossignol, D., Burnell-Nugent, M., & Fallon, M. T. (2013). An open-label extension study to investigate the long-term safety and tolerability of THC/CBD oromucosal spray and oromucosal THC spray in patients with terminal cancer-related pain refractory to strong opioid analgesics. Journal of pain and symptom management, 46(2), 207-218.
VanDolah, H. J., Bauer, B. A., & Mauck, K. F. (2019, September). Clinicians’ guide to cannabidiol and hemp oils. In Mayo Clinic Proceedings (Vol. 94, No. 9, pp. 1840-1851). Elsevier.
CAN CBD GUMMIES HELP ADHD?
Attention deficit hyperactive disorder (ADHD) is a health condition that affects behaviour, often leading to restlessness. CBD gummies can treat ADHD by suppressing its signs and symptoms. This article explains whether CBD gummies can help with ADHD.
CBD gummies are among the many products derived from the hemp plant. In recent years, the infusion of CBD into everyday consumer goods has risen exponentially. Ideally, CBD contains multiple medicinal components infused in various products to treat stress, inflammation, pain, depression, and anxiety, among other conditions. These benefits enable CBD-infused gummies to manage ADHD. Notably, depression and anxiety aggravate ADHD-related irrational behaviors.
CBD Gummies and ADHD
Generally, CBD extract has some calming effects and properties when consumed by an individual. When infused into gummies, the effects can also be felt by an individual with ADHD. Häuser et al. (2018) explained that people with ADHD could consume CBD gummies to suppress hyperactivity and impulsiveness. Equally, CBD improves focus and concentration to a task; lose of focus is another ADHD-related condition.
Are our CBD gummies safe for ADHD?
Some common CBD side effects are diarrhoea, fatigue, drowsiness, and dry mouth. Working (2022) explained the effect of CBD is not homogenous among the users. Individuals should therefore consider the following factors when using CBD for ADHD:
Individuals With Prescribed Medicines.
CBD may undermine other types of medication; the CBD receptors in the body could also be needed for other medications. Thus, users should consult a doctor before using CBD-infused gummies for ADHD patients under the prescription of other drugs.
According to FDA guidelines, pregnant women should not consume CBD gummies; it affects the fetus.
Since kids’ cognitive abilities are not well developed, CBD-infused gummies could result in cognitive problems. Users should consult a doctor before using CBD gummies on ADHD kids.
ADHD patients can use CBD gummies to maintain focus, achieve quality sleep, and relax their minds. The gummies contain multiple cannabis compounds that suppress ADHD’s problematic behaviors. These behaviors include hyperactivity and impulsive behaviour. The gummies are relatively safe for consumption. Pregnant women and children should avoid CBD-infused gummies to prevent fetal harm and cognitive damage. Uses should also seek medical advice if unsure how to administer CBD for ADHD conditions.
Häuser, W., Finn, D., Kalso, E., Krcevski-Skvarc, N., Kress, N. G., Morlion, B., . & Brill, S. (2018). Vaporization of flower/bud in a vaporizing device or a regulated cannabis vape pen (cartridges). European Journal of Internal Medicine, 40, 12-19.
Working, W. S. C. S. (2022). How Much CBD Should I Take the First Time?. Sign, 62.
ARE CBD CAPSULES ANY GOOD
CBD capsules are v-caps infused with various hemp extracts; terpenes, flavonoids, tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), and cannabidiol (CBD). CBD capsules are either in full spectrum, broad-spectrum or isolate. The effects of a CBD product are determined cannabis components it contains and the method of consumption. For instance, CBD capsules are consumed through ingestion, a phenomenon that provides different experiences from sublingual or vaping. Some of the reasons most people prefer CBD capsules are;
Infused With Specific Potencies
Most hemp-based companies offer their capsules in a bottle pack with 30 capsules. However, each capsule is infused with specific potency levels, from 5 mg to 500 mg of CBD. As a result, one is unlikely the CBD capsules. However, it is important to confirm the actual potency levels per capsule using lab results since some brands post the wrong potency levels. CBD capsules without lab results can make users overdose unknowingly. The potency levels of CBD per capsule cannot be divided into halves. Therefore, buy capsules with lower concentrations to reduce the potency levels.
According to Astray et al. (2021), CBD oil can attract unnecessary attention from people around you since you will have to measure the amount using a dropper. In contrast, the capsules can be administered discreetly and in the right dosage. Capsules are administered easily and faster by swallowing through your mouth, followed by taking pure water or a favorite non-intoxicating drink.
Avoiding Awful Taste
The hemp plant has an awful natural taste (Astray et al., 2021). Flavoring CBD products with artificial flavors such as potassium might interfere with the potency and purity levels. Hence, the capsules provide pure and natural CBD. Some brands offer vegan capsules to help people monitor their diet.
The disadvantages of CBD Capsules
Although CBD capsules have various advantages over other products, they might not be the best in terms of effectiveness. CBD capsule’s effect takes longer as it gets digested first. Users can not take half the dose because that makes it ineffective.
CBD capsules are good for various reasons. They can help the user avoid the awful taste of hemp plants while ensuring they take the right dosage. CBD capsules are meant for oral use only. Use water or a favorite drink to avoid choking when swallowing a capsule. Lastly, confirm the potency and purity levels of the capsules using lab results, preferably from a certified lab.
Astray, G., Mejuto, J. C., Xiao, J., & Simal-Gandara, J. (2021). Benefits, toxicity and current market of cannabidiol in edibles. Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition, 1-13
Do CBD Capsules help with Anxiety?
CBD is preferred for various health benefits, including lowering anxiety levels. Anxiety is mainly caused by trauma, stress, and mental health disorder, resulting in an imbalance of progesterone and estrogen. However, CBD can only be effective for Anxiety under considerable doses.
How CBD Capsules Works For Anxiety
Unlike gummies, tinctures, and vapes, CBD capsule impact on Anxiety is delayed. The effects might be within an hour or two. Anxiety disrupts normal body functioning, including interfering with sleeping patterns. Animals and humans have various receptors within their bodies responsible for sending signals.
The endocannabinoid system (ECS) is responsible for sending signals around the body and the mind. The system is intertwined with CB1 receptors around the mind and CB2 within the body. When someone experiences Anxiety, the adrenaline lowers, which is an impulsive inflammatory reaction. According to Manocha et al. (2011), CBD binds with CB1 receptors around the mind regulating the production of progesterone and adrenaline responsible for Anxiety. The anti-inflammatory properties balance the production of anxiety hormones, restoring calmness. Lowering anxiety levels helps one to focus or have enough sleep.
The concentration of CBD one consumes matters. According to Liu Tina (2019), abuse of CBD can cause Anxiety, dizziness, and a change in appetite. Besides, consider hemp-based CBD since it has low THC levels than marijuana-based.
How To Administer CBD Capsules For Anxiety
Avoid using too many capsules or opening V-caps for rapid effectiveness. CBD capsules are for oral use. Swallow one after the other using water or a favorite drink to prevent it from getting stacked around the throat. CBD capsules also address sleep deprivation due to Anxiety, consider taking CBD capsules two hours before bedtime.
The Best Type Of CBD Capsules For Anxiety
CBD capsules are offered in full spectrum, broad-spectrum, or isolate. Broad spectrum capsules contain all the hemp chemical compounds, including tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). Fattore et al. (2011) suggested that THC has psychoactive effects, including Anxiety and dizziness. Therefore, it might not be an appropriate choice. A broad spectrum works best to lower anxiety levels. It has all the elements of the hemp plant except THC. Also, isolate capsules are suitable for Anxiety when taken considerably. Isolate, or pure CBD form of cannabidiol, is limited to its health benefits.
CBD capsules are effective for Anxiety like other products. However, its impact is delayed since they take longer to be digested. Expect the effect of CBD capsules within 2 hours. However, only considerable amounts will be effective. Too much CBD rather increases anxiety levels.
Liu, T. (2019). What is CBD Oil? Learn the Facts: Uses, Benefits, and Side Effects.
Manocha, R., Black, D., Sarris, J., & Stough, C. (2011). A randomized, controlled meditation trial for work stress, Anxiety, and depressed mood in full-time workers. Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, 2011.
Are CBD Gummies Legal To Fly With?
Tourists or people who like to travel might need to travel with CBD gummies. This article covers the legalities of flying with CBD.
Cannabidiol (CBD) gummies are CBD-infused edibles. They are delicious and discrete, meaning consumers can enjoy them while flying. The 2018 farm bill legalized hemp products. However, some countries have banned cannabidiol product usage. Here is what to know about flying with CBD gummies.
Most consumers question the cannabidiol legality in different countries. For beginners, understanding the difference between hemp and marijuana is paramount. The latter represents cannabis plants with beyond 0.3% THC levels. However, the former constitutes below 0.3 percent THC, which cannot generate psychoactive and intoxicating effects. De Briyne et al. (2021) showed that cannabidiol comes from these plant variants, but marijuana-derived products are prohibited at the federal level. Thus carrying or flying with them is illegal. The individual can be fined or imprisoned for having marijuana products. However, some states allow them for medicinal and recreational purposes. Hemp distribution and production are permitted through the 2018 Farm Bill. The Bill removed CBD from the schedule 1 substances list, thus making the natural element lawful under federal laws provided it complies with guidelines. Cannabidiol should be derived from plants farmed under specific conditions. For instance, they have below 0.3 percent THC and fulfill other regulations stipulated in the 2018 bill. The following section gives guidelines for flying with CBD gummies:
Know The Cannabis Laws For Your Destination
For people flying to the United States, the Transport Security Authority (TSA) allows hemp-sourced cannabidiol gummies in carry-ons and checked bags provided the tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) is below 0.3 percent. Research to understand laws in the country you are boarding a plane. Avoid carrying cannabidiol gummies to States where cannabis products are banned and vice versa.
Carry the Certificate Of Analysis (COA)
Manufacturers should provide customers with this document. It verifies the ingredients used and their proportions in your gummies. Ensure that the THC level remains below 0.3% legal level to escape negative law consequences. Montoya et al. (2020) warned users to avoid cannabidiol gummies containing harmful heavy metals, microbials, and pesticides.
Know Laws Where You Have Connecting Flights
Consumers should keep their CBD gummies in carry-on or checked bags throughout the flight. Ensure cannabidiol is legal in places between flights to avoid unnecessary fines or imprisonment by airport security.
Cannabidiol products are legalized in some countries. CBD was removed from schedule 1 substances after hemp legalization but remains illegal in certain States. Therefore, consumers should understand the cannabis laws for their destination. They must also ensure CBD gummies have below 0.3% THC.
De Briyne, N., Holmes, D., Sandler, I., Stiles, E., Szymanski, D., Moody, S., . & Anadón, A. (2021). Cannabis, Cannabidiol Oils And Tetrahydrocannabinol—What Do Veterinarians Need To Know?. Animals, 11(3), 892.
Montoya, Z., Conroy, M., Vanden Heuvel, B. D., Pauli, C. S., & Park, S. H. (2020). Cannabis Contaminants Limit Pharmacological Use Of Cannabidiol. Frontiers In Pharmacology, 11, 571832.
Customers searching for cannabidiol (CBD), a widely used non-intoxicating cannabinoid present in the cannabis plant, will probably come across not only CBD oil but also a wide variety of CBD creams and other topical CBD treatments. In reality, the health and wellness industry has been overrun with various CBD creams and other topicals since the 2018 Farm Bill approved hemp-derived CBD products on a federal level in the US and placed them under the Food and Drug Administration’s purview. While medicinal marijuana is still unavailable in many places, hemp-derived CBD products have emerged, providing many patients with a legal means of obtaining therapeutic relief. The effects of CBD cream are discussed in more detail below.
What Is CBD Cream?
CBD cream is a topical cream mixed with CBD, a phytocannabinoid. It may contain CBD, a distillate that includes some other minor cannabinoids, or a broad spectrum oil that contains terpenes and minor cannabinoids. Chelliah (2018) noted that when CBD is applied topically, people can lessen pain and inflammation and assist in managing skin conditions.
The study above also noted that they could administer lotions, salves, and creams containing CBD topically to relieve pain on the skin’s surface or a little deeper in the muscles. CBD cream is a topical product based on cream and contains CBD. Most cosmetic creams typically contain 50 percent oil and 50 percent water.
The substance’s consistency sets CBD topicals apart, such as creams, salves, and lotions. It depends on consumer preference, like with non-CBD infused items.
Creams may be more beneficial for dehydrated skin because of their thickness. Salves, however, are created without water but with wax and oil. Creams might be better for muscle soreness than salves since they absorb more quickly.
Some people might also classify CBD transdermal patches as a topical application. However, people haven’t included patches here because they contain substances and technology intended to push CBD through the skin and into the bloodstream.
Are There Side Effects In CBD Cream?
Huetstis et al. (2019) discovered that the most frequent adverse effects of CBD products include fatigue, diarrhea, and a change in appetite or weight. The study above also points out that compared to other medications that doctors use to treat the same problems, CBD products have fewer adverse effects. Although this can happen with any topical lotion, not just CBD skin creams, contact dermatitis may be a side effect of CBD skin cream. Some people might be apprehensive about CBD’s inclusion in medicines. CBD creams, however, have very little to no THC, so they won’t get you high.
What Is CBD Cream Used For?
CBD creams can help the skin’s surface and the layers beneath it when applied. Biernacki et al. (2021) stated that CBD penetrates the dermal and subdermal layers of the skin when administered topically. Jager & Witkamp (2014) stated that the human body’s endocannabinoid system (ECS) controls appetite, mood, pain, and pleasure perceptions. The study above also noted that tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD) connect to cell receptors in the skin, muscles, and nerves, activating the ECS in the body. This interaction explains why chronic pain and inflammation are the most frequent uses for CBD cream. According to Martinelli et al.(2021), phytocannabinoids like CBD interact with skin receptors and other enzymatic components that control pain and inflammation.
How to Use CBD Cream?
A person can use lotions and other topicals containing CBD. All sore areas that can benefit from local treatment should be treated with topical on and around them. CBD cream should not be applied to damaged skin, as should other lotions and creams.
Topical CBD application is akin to applying a hydrating moisturizer. However, using the right amount of CBD on the skin is not that simple. It is critical to know how many milligrams are there to determine whether there is sufficient CBD in the topical to deliver the therapeutic relief patients want. A CBD cream with a low substance concentration will perform less well than one with a more significant concentration.
CBD may reduce inflammation, but additional research is required. CBD cream can be an alternative for individuals who want a natural cure. Every cream case is different because what works for one individual may not work for another. Several companies sell CBD skin creams. When taking CBD products for the first time, a person should start with a minimal dose and, if necessary, gradually increase it over time. They can discuss the safest approach to taking CBD products with a doctor. However, there isn’t much data about how well CBD works as a topical. When feasible, use powerful, full-spectrum, organic components to get the most therapeutic effect from your CBD products.
Biernacki, M., Brzóska, M. M., Markowska, A., Gałażyn-Sidorczuk, M., Cylwik, B., Gęgotek, A., & Skrzydlewska, E. (2021). Oxidative Stress And Its Consequences In The Blood Of Rats Irradiated With UV: Protective Effect Of Cannabidiol. Antioxidants, 10(6), 821.
Chelliah, M. P., Zinn, Z., Khuu, P., & Teng, J. M. (2018). Self‐Initiated Use Of Topical Cannabidiol Oil For Epidermolysis Bullosa: Pediatric Dermatology, 35(4), E224-E227.
Huestis, M. A., Solimini, R., Pichini, S., Pacifici, R., Carlier, J., & Busardò, F. P. (2019). Cannabidiol Adverse Effects And Toxicity. Current Neuropharmacology, 17(10), 974-989.
Jager, G., & Witkamp, R. F. (2014). The Endocannabinoid System And Appetite: Relevance For A Food Reward. Nutrition Research Reviews, 27(1), 172-185.
Martinelli, G., Magnavacca, A., Fumagalli, M., DellʼAgli, M., Piazza, S., & Sangiovanni, E. (2021). Cannabis Sativa And Skin Health: Dissecting The Role Of Phytocannabinoids. Planta Medica.
Zenone, M. (2020). Cannabidiol (CBD) Marketing And Decision-Making: Examining 164 Crowdfunding Campaigns And 2,165 CBD Products For Sale Online In Canada (Doctoral Dissertation, Health Sciences: Faculty Of Health Sciences).
DOES CBD CREAM SHOW IN A DRUG TEST?
CBD products are important in pharmaceutical and wellness because of their benefits. CBD products include capsules, salves, balms, oils, creams, and lotions; each is designed to cause certain effects on the body. Some CBD products have trace levels of THC, the psychoactive ingredient in marijuana. However, if the amount of THC is more than 0.3%, it might show up on a drug test. Read the article below as it gives an in-depth outline of the content levels of THC in CBD creams.
Can CBD Creams Show Up On A Drug Test?
According to Evans (2020), CBD products are sometimes problematic in matters of drug testing. There are different ways to carry out a drug test, the most common being examining blood or urine. Other drug tests are less commonly used methods, including tests conducted on the skin or hair follicles. Drug tests normally look for THC components in the blood instead of CBD. Therefore, if the CBD cream is made from pure CBD, it will not show in a drug test. CBD creams and any other CBD topical treatment are applied on the skin and absorbed by the pores. After absorption, they merge with the endocannabinoid receptors in the body to give relief for mild cases of pain and soreness.
Topical CBD products like CBD creams and lotions will not result in a positive drug test because they do not come into contact with the blood; their impact is on the surface. THC can be found in one’s hair 90 days after consuming any product with THC. In urine, THC levels can stay up to 3 days, while in the blood, it can last up to 36 hours. Several factors influence how long THC levels stay in the bloodstream;
• Frequency of hydration
• Levels of THC
• Body chemistry and metabolism
• Frequency of use
According to Kale (2019), most hospitals use urine testing because it is the most common drug testing method. Additionally, urine tests detect higher levels of drug concentrations than blood samples. However, there are steps to follow for people worried that their CBD creams have high levels of THC. Some of the factors that may increase the risk of a drug test turning positive are;
Full spectrum CBD creams are most likely to contain levels of THC because it contains most of the compounds of the cannabis sativa plant. Some of the useful compounds include flavonoids, cannabinoids, and terpenes.
The more one uses CBD products, especially those with trace levels of THC, the longer the THC levels stay in the system. Additionally, note that CBD levels can take up to months to leave the system. Therefore, individuals should be careful about how much CBD they consume.
Cross-contamination With THC
Cross-contamination occurs when manufacturers infuse their products with CBD and THC. However, CBD can also be contaminated at home or in a shop.
Note that CBD does not appear in drug tests because drug tests are not conditioned to check for traces of CBD. Drug tests only look out for levels of THC in the system. Therefore, if you use any product infused with CBD like CBD oil, check on the THC levels, especially if one has to undergo a drug test.
Several CBD products may contain THC, which may stain a drug test result. Therefore, one must purchase CBD products from a reputable source to ensure that high levels of THC do not accumulate in the body. Additionally, ensure that your CBD products align with the country of residence’s federal laws.
Evans, D. G. (2020). Medical fraud, mislabeling, contamination: all common in CBD products. Missouri Medicine, 117(5), 394.
Kale, N. (2019). Urine drug tests: ordering and interpreting results. American Family Physician, 99(1), 33-39.
Is CBD Really Non-Psychoactive?
Data shows that CBD interacts directly with the CB1 cannabinoid receptor in therapeutically relevant ways while modulating THC’s psychoactive effects.
Data shows that CBD interacts directly with the CB1 cannabinoid receptor in therapeutically relevant ways while modulating THC’s psychoactive effects.
Understanding how cannabidiol ( CBD ) exerts its myriad effects on human physiology is a work in progress. Thus far, scientists have identified more than 60 different molecular pathways through which CBD operates. It is known, for example, that CBD acts through multiple receptor-independent channels and it also binds to various receptors in the brain, including serotonin 5HT1A (which contributes to CBD ’s anti-anxiety effect), TRPV1 (which contributes to CBD ’s anti-psychotic effect), the nuclear receptor PPAR -gamma (regulates gene expression), and the orphan receptor GPR55 , among others.
CBD and tetrahydrocannabinol ( THC ) have similar molecular structures, but CBD does not directly stimulate CB1 and CB2 , the canonical cannabinoid receptors, like THC does. THC , marijuana’s principal psychoactive component, makes a person feel high by binding to CB1 , the most abundant protein receptor in the brain and central nervous system.
THC fits snugly into a special pocket – an “orthosteric” binding site – on the CB1 receptor. The image of lock-and-key is apropos for orthosteric binding: THC , the molecular key, fits into the CB1 receptor lock and turns it on, which triggers a signaling cascade on a cellular level that inhibits the release of other neurotransmitters (thereby protecting the brain from too much excitation). It’s one of the many reasons why THC is such a remarkable therapeutic substance.
CB1 ’s orthosteric binding site is also the “keyhole” for THC ’s endogenous cousins, anandamide (the first endocannabinoid compound discovered in the mammalian brain) and 2AG (our most abundant endocannabinoid). Likened to the brain’s own marijuana, these endogenous cannabinoid compounds fit into the same orthosteric binding pocket as THC and activate some of the same signaling mechanisms.
New Data Versus Old Science
Since the CB1 receptor was discovered in 1988, it’s been an article of faith among cannabinoid researchers that CBD , unlike THC , has little binding affinity for CB1 . But this notion is based on old science.
New data emerging from the international cannabinoid research community indicates that CBD interacts directly with the CB1 receptor in ways that are therapeutically relevant. But CBD parks at a different docking site on CB1 that is functionally distinct from THC ’s orthosteric binding site. CBD attaches to what’s known as an “allosteric” binding site on the CB1 receptor.
When cannabidiol, an allosteric modulator of CB1 , docks at the receptor, it does not initiate a signaling cascade. But it does impact how the CB1 receptor responds to stimulation by THC and the endogenous cannabinoids. Allosteric modulation of CB1 changes the conformation (shape) of the receptor, and this can have a dramatic impact on the efficiency of cell signaling.
Every cell membrane has lots of receptors for many types of messenger molecules, which influence the activity of the cell. It’s not uncommon for a receptor to have two distinct binding sites or loci that can be activated by various drugs and endogenous compounds. The orthosteric site is the switch that a drug turns on, whereas an allosteric modulator can either amplify or decrease a receptor’s ability to transmit a signal depending on how the allosteric modulator changes the conformation of the receptor.
To extend the lock-and-key metaphor: If the orthosteric binding site is the lock on a door, then the allosteric binding site, when activated, makes the lock easier or more difficult to open. A “positive allosteric modulator” changes the shape of the receptor in a way that potentiates receptor signaling, while a “negative allosteric modulator” will reduce receptor transmission.
Healing Without the High?
Numerous pharmaceuticals target orthosteric binding sites for receptor stimulation. Big Pharma has also brought to market several synthetic allosteric modulators of other receptor systems (Mimpara, Piracetam, and Selzentry, for example). There is serious interest among drug companies in allosteric modulation of the endocannabinoid system. In theory, if not practice, allosteric modulators can prime the system for amplification or inhibition by fine-tuning receptor transmission with amazing subtlety.
Full-on stimulation of CB1 can deliver therapeutic benefits, but THC ’s psychoactivity intrinsically limits its medical utility, according to Big Pharma catechism. For the medical constabularies, getting high is by definition an adverse side effect. Allosteric modulation raises the prospect of increasing CB1 receptor activity without causing disconcerting dysphoria or needless euphoria.
Scientists at the University of Aberdeen in Scotland have synthesized a positive allosteric modulator of CB1 to treat pain and neurological disorders. When researchers at Virginia Commonwealth University tested the compound on mice, this experimental drug, known as “ ZCZ011 ,” had no psychoactive effects of its own, but reduced neuropathic and inflammatory pain by boosting the CB1 receptor’s response to anandamide, an endocannabinoid compound.
Research into allosteric modulation of the endocannabinoid system is still in its early phases. Allosteric modulators of CB1 were first discovered in 2005. Ten years would elapse before scientists at Dalhousie University in Halifax, Canada, reported in the British Journal of Pharmacology that cannabidiol is a negative allosteric modulator of CB1 in vitro. This means that CBD lowers the ceiling on the ability of THC and endogenous cannabinoids to stimulate CB1 .
The Canadian research team identified the exact molecular niche where CBD parks at the CB1 receptor, a protein which consists of 472 amino acids strung together in a crumpled chain that wraps around the cell membrane seven times. Scientists can mutate CB1 receptors with precision, targeting one amino acid at a time. Data generated by mutational analysis pinpointed positions 98 and 107 on CB1 ’s amino acid chain as the key docking loci for CBD .
A Dimmer Switch
Negative allosteric modulation of CB1 is conceptually similar to a dimmer switch on a light fixture. CBD alters cognition and improves mood; it creates mood lighting for the brain and dims the ‘strobe light’ triggering seizures. As a negative allosteric modulator of the CB1 receptor, CBD shows particular promise for treating conditions associated with endocannabinoid excess or overactivity (obesity, metabolic disorders, liver disease, cardiovascular issues), whereas a positive allosteric modulator that enhances CB1 receptor signaling could be helpful for diseases linked to endocannabinoid deficits (such as anorexia, migraines, irritable bowel, fibromyalgia, and PTSD ).
It should be noted that allosteric modulators typically are unable to alter receptor conformation unless the orthosteric binding site is also stimulated. CBD can modulate CB1 receptor signaling only when THC or another cannabinoid compound is active at the orthosteric binding site. In terms of whole plant cannabis therapeutics, CBD ’s efficacy as an allosteric modulator requires the co-presence of THC .
THC and CBD work in tandem; they are the power couple of cannabis therapeutics. Given the intimate synergies between these two plant compounds, how much sense does it make to attribute psychoactivity exclusively to one ( THC ) and not the other ( CBD )? Is it really accurate to say that CBD is a “non-psychoactive” substance?
Researchers have demonstrated that CBD confers antipsychotic, anxiolytic (anxiety-reducing), and antidepressant effects. If CBD can relieve anxiety or depression or psychosis, then obviously cannabidiol is a profound mood-altering substance, even if it doesn’t deliver much by way of euphoria. Perhaps it would be better to say that CBD is “not psychoactive like THC ,” rather than repeating the familiar and somewhat misleading refrain that “ CBD is not psychoactive.”
The identification of cannabidiol as a negative allosteric modulator that binds directly to the CB1 receptor challenges antiquated assumptions about CBD and sheds new light on its medicinal potential. In turn, as our scientific understanding and therapeutic experience deepens, the description of CBD as non-psychoactive may fall by the wayside.
Jahan Marcu is Chief Science Officer at Americans for Safe Access with 14 years of experience in Cannabis research and regulations. Ali S. Matthews is the pen name of an endocannabinoid researcher currently studying allosteric modulators and the mammalian brain, who wishes to protect the privacy and identity of his federally funded laboratory. Martin A. Lee is the director of Project CBD and the author of Smoke Signals: A Social History of Marijuana – Medical, Recreational and Scientific.
Copyright, Project CBD . May not be reprinted without permission.
Conversion of Cannabidiol (CBD) into Psychotropic Cannabinoids Including Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC): A Controversy in the Scientific Literature
Cannabidiol (CBD) is a naturally occurring, non-psychotropic cannabinoid of the hemp plant Cannabis sativa L. and has been known to induce several physiological and pharmacological effects. While CBD is approved as a medicinal product subject to prescription, it is also widely sold over the counter (OTC) in the form of food supplements, cosmetics and electronic cigarette liquids. However, regulatory difficulties arise from its origin being a narcotic plant or its status as an unapproved novel food ingredient. Regarding the consumer safety of these OTC products, the question whether or not CBD might be degraded into psychotropic cannabinoids, most prominently tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), under in vivo conditions initiated an ongoing scientific debate. This feature review aims to summarize the current knowledge of CBD degradation processes, specifically the results of in vitro and in vivo studies. Additionally, the literature on psychotropic effects of cannabinoids was carefully studied with a focus on the degradants and metabolites of CBD, but data were found to be sparse. While the literature is contradictory, most studies suggest that CBD is not converted to psychotropic THC under in vivo conditions. Nevertheless, it is certain that CBD degrades to psychotropic products in acidic environments. Hence, the storage stability of commercial formulations requires more attention in the future.
Keywords: Cannabis sativa; cannabidiol; degradation; psychotropic effects; tetrahydrocannabinol.
Conflict of interest statement
The authors declare no conflict of interest.
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