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Cbd oil for celiacs

CBD Oil for Celiac Disease: Benefits, Use and Dosage

This article highlights and discusses the benefits, uses, and dosage of CBD oil for celiac disease.

CBD is extracted alongside THC from cannabis yet their effects on the human body are worlds apart. CBD is recognized around the world 1 for its health benefits due to its anti-inflammatory properties 2 and ability to alleviate pain 3 As a result, it could be considered an effective treatment for health conditions like celiac disease. Celiac disease is an autoimmune condition that makes the intestinal wall reactive to gluten 4 .

What Is Celiac Disease?

Celiac disease is a common autoimmune disease that affects a significant portion of the population. The immune reaction occurs when a person ingests gluten in foods like wheat, rye, and barley. When the affected person eats this protein, his or her immune system responds by attacking the intestinal wall. With critical structures such as villi found all over the small intestines, this condition has the potential to affect one’s health greatly.

Once severe damage occurs to the villi, your small intestines become “malfunctional”, thus making it hard for them to take up nutrients from passing food. This can lead to a condition of malnourishment and in some severe cases to loss of bone density, miscarriages, neurological disorders, and infertility. The other symptoms you should look out for include diarrhea, bloating, excess gas, fatigue, weight loss, iron-deficiency anemia, constipation, an itchy rash, and mouth ulcers. In adults, celiac disease is a bit complicated because it may pave way for other health conditions like arthritis, osteoporosis, liver disorders, depression, seizures, and dermatitis herpetiformis 5 .

Why CBD Can Be An Effective Treatment For Celiac Disease

CBD is a natural compound obtained from the Cannabis Sativa L. (also known as hemp). CBD’s ability to effectively interact with the human endocannabinoid system is a contributing factor to its effectiveness when treating celiac disease. This system consists of endocannabinoids, as well as CB1 and CB2 cannabinoid receptors, which regulate body functions like immunity, sleep, appetite, pain, and mood.

CBD triggers the production of CB1 and CB2, boosting the body’s immune system. It can also help relieve celiac disease symptoms such as pain, inflammation, loss of appetite, and irritation that affect the gastrointestinal tract.

Some patients also complain of nausea, which can lead to appetite and weight loss. CBD oil has anti-nausea properties that will help relieve both nausea and appetite loss and boost the metabolism 6

In most cases, patients opt to use gluten-free meals, a diet that is hard to maintain. Back in 2003, a study on Cannabinoid Receptors in Celiac Disease 7 revealed that cannabinoid receptors in the intestinal tract were more widespread in the untreated patients to those who had been following a gluten-free diet for more than a year. This disocvery led researchers to believe that targeting the cannabinoid receptors can help in relieving the symptoms of celiac disease

Scientifically, CBD has been shown to be an inhibitor of FAAH enzyme, also known as Fatty acid amide hydrolase 8 This enzyme will breakdown anandamide that has neuroprotective properties. By inhibiting FAAH enzyme, CBD thus promotes the anti-inflammatory effects within the intestine.

According to studies, Celiac disease can lead to nerve damage 9 . CBD can be a solution for neuropathy pain 10 , as it has neuroprotective 11 and neurodegenerative 12 properties. Taking CBD oil, can therefore, help repair this damage for better nerve function.

How To Use CBD To Treat Celiac Disease

CBD oil can be used in various ways. Patients mostly prefer the sublingual method where they place a drop of CBD oil on the tongue and allow a minute or so before swallowing.

You can also use CBD Vape pens for vaping the oil, thus making absorption quick and the relief of symptoms faster. If vaping or sublingual use is problematic, you can use CBD capsules because they are easier to ingest.

What Medical Research Says About Using CBD For Celiac Disease

While we explore the potential effects of CBD oil in addressing celiac disease, we must admit that only limited studies focus on this subject. Furthermore, most of the research on CBD Oil and celiac disease has ended up in inconclusive results. In 2011, for instance, the scientific journal PLOS One featured a research by Italian scholars who were determined to evaluate the possibility of reducing intestinal inflammation after using CBD for celiac disease 13 .

According to their findings, they concluded that CBD regulates inflammatory reactions in the intestine. As a result, it prevents intestinal damage, a symptom associated with celiac disease.

Research conducted at the University of Teramo also aimed to analyze the specific attributes of the Endocannabinoid System 14 . Although their findings are inconclusive, the researchers proved a significant correlation between the malfunctions of the endocannabinoid system and the pathogenesis of celiac disease.

Nonetheless, more studies should be done to explore the therapeutic effects of CBD towards easing the symptoms of Celiac disease.

How to correctly dose CBD

There are several factors you have to consider before taking CBD oil. These can include the severity/stage of your condition, as well as how well your body tolerates CBD. While side-effects of CBD oil are rare, there are some, which you should be aware of. Read our CBD oil side-effects guide for more detailed information.

To find the perfect dose of CBD for your specific case, you may have to experiment a bit and look for signs of improvement. A great guide to CBD dosage is the step-up method, developed by L einow & Birnbaum in their book “CBD: A patient’s guide to Medical Cannabis” 15 . The authors recommend starting with a lower dose and slowly increasing it until symptoms improve.

You can find a detailed explanation of the step-up method in our CBD dosage guide.

Benefits of CBD oil for Celiac Disease – Summary

  • Fights inflammation
  • Relieves (neuropathy ) pain
  • Improves appetite
  • Calms irritation in the gastrointestinal tract.

Based on the various studies available, it is clear that the relation between CBD oil and celiac disease exists. CBD oil can relieve inflammation in the nervous and immune system in addition to eliminating other symptoms like pain. This will also improve the quality of sleep while improving appetite.

Despite the numerous fruitful benefits of treating celiac disease with CBD oil, it is wise to wait for additional scientific studies to test if the oil can be a reliable relief for celiac disease. Nonetheless, you can manage celiac disease by maintaining a gluten-free diet plan.

CBD for celiac disease

Celiac /coeliac disease is a common autoimmune disease that affects about one in every hundred individuals worldwide. It has the potential to cause severe long-term complications.

If you’ve been wondering whether cannabis and CBD could help treat coeliac disease, here’s everything you need to know.

What is celiac disease?

Also known as celiac sprue, non-tropical sprue, and gluten sensitive enteropathy, this autoimmune disease is based in the small intestine. It causes the body to react to the gluten found in wheat, rye, and barley.

How does it affect the body?

When celiac disease isn’t treated it can lead to symptoms such as weight-loss and diarrhea, and in some cases other long-term health problems. Babies growth may be stunted, and pregnant women may find that their baby’s birth weight is lower than average.

When it affects older children and adults, it can cause “brain fog” and a general lack of energy. Celiac can also affect bones, making them weak. This can lead to osteoporosis or even fractures after minor falls or injuries. It can also lead to cancer such as intestinal lymphoma but this is much rarer than most other celiac-related issues.

Untreated patients can be at risk from malnutrition due to the low absorption of nutrients through food. Treating celiac disease right away is therefore very important before any more damage occurs.

Celiac disease symptoms include:
  • general malaise
  • abdominal pain
  • stomach cramps
  • vomiting
  • diarrhea
  • Itchy rash
  • malnutrition
  • weight loss

Celiac disease symptoms are often mistaken for other gastrointestinal tract issues such as irritable bowel syndrome. These symptoms are not limited to intestinal abnormalities but also cause neurological problems that include ataxia or weakness of the arms or legs, peripheral neuropathy leading to tingling feelings in the hands and feet, numbness of the legs and arms, headaches, tinnitus or ringing in ears, difficulty with balance and slurred speech.

It is worth mentioning that celiac patients also have a 50% chance of passing on the genetic mutation to their offspring.

Celiac disease can normally be diagnosed with a blood test

How to diagnose celiac disease

Celiac disease can be diagnosed with an antibody blood test, or through a genetic blood test looking for mutations in the genes. In extreme cases a biopsy of the small intestine may be necessary.

Conventional treatments for celiac disease

Conventional treatments for celiac disease are typically aimed at modifying diet. Patients are instructed to avoid eating gluten and carbohydrates that can be converted into gluten. Celiacs need to remain on a gluten-free diet, in order for the symptoms to diminish or disappear.

What is CBD?

CBD is a cannabinoid that comes from the Cannabis Sativa plant. It has no psychoactive effects and does not give users a “high” feeling, which makes it attractive to many consumers who want therapeutic effects but don’t care for the mind-altering side effects that come from THC consumption.

How does CBD work?

CBD works with the body’s endocannabinoid system. When we take CBD oil it affects certain receptors within this system leading to improved well being.

The endocannabinoid system

The endocannabinoid system (ECS) is a network of receptors in the brain, immune system, and other parts of the body. It is responsible for regulating a variety of physiological processes including appetite, pain-sensation, hormones, mood and memory. It works through a system of receptors and neurotransmitters

CBD works primarily by interacting with two types of ECS receptor in the brain and body: cannabinoid type I (CB1) and II (CB2).

This interaction helps the ECS to function more effectively, breaking down the neurotransmitters less quickly. As well as this CBD has anti-inflammatory properties and will promote healthy cell growth throughout your body by reducing inflammation while increasing healthy digestive function.

Studies on CBD and cannabis for celiac disease

There are few celiac disease studies that have examined treatment with cannabis or CBD, but the scientific community has produced some encouraging results.

The Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology published a study investagating cannabis usage among celiacs.

Over 59% of the survey’s participants said they had used cannabis. Of these, 46% of those without celiac disease reported using it on a regular basis compared to just 6% of diagnosed celiac patients.

However, around 66% of undiagnosed celiacs utilized cannabis on a regular basis, as well as another 51% of non-celiac individuals who avoided gluten.

This implies that individuals may be using marijuana to treat celiac disease before receiving an official diagnosis. However, when people begin to avoid gluten more strictly, the need to medicate may lessen.

Study results suggest that individuals may be using marijuana to treat celiac disease before receiving an official diagnosis

In 2011 an Italian researcher published a study in the scientific journal PLOS assessing the prospect of reducing intestinal inflammation with CBD therapy.

They concluded that CBD inhibits inflammatory responses in the intestine, and protects against intestinal damage, one of the symptoms of celiac disease.

However, more research into the therapeutic potential of CBD in reducing the symptoms of gluten intolerance is definitely needed.

How to use CBD with celiac disease

Many sufferers use CBD to provide relief and manage celiac disease symptoms.

CBD can be ingested in a number of ways, including through capsules, vaping or oil taken under the tongue.

This makes it easy to take CBD alongside celiac medications.

CBD oil capsules are small and easily swallowed, unlike other forms of the product which can be difficult for people with celiac disease who find swallowing difficult or uncomfortable.

Vaping is another way to use CBD, as heating the product turns it into a vapor that can be inhaled using an e-cigarette device. This method may also help reduce any digestive issues associated with ingesting CBD orally.

CBD oil comes in many different strengths, and forms such as Full Spectrum and Broad Spectrum. It is best taken sublingually (under the tongue) as it enters the blood stream more quickly via the mucous membranes we have there.

The advantage of CBD oil is that it remains in the system for some 6-8 hours, meaning that taking 3 times a day can give 24 hour relief.

If you have celiac disease please always speak to your doctor first before taking these CBD products/methods mentioned in this post.

The benefits of using CBD for celiac with a gluten free diet

Using CBD for celiac disease along with a gluten free diet appears to offer many great benefits:

  • improved mood
  • reduction in symptoms
  • increase of appetite
  • relief of celiac pain
  • increase in energy levels

Obviously a reduction in symptoms is going to put you in a better mood because your body isn’t dealing with the physical stress of the celiac diseases’ onslaught on your stomach’s lining.

Using CBD along with a gluten free diet may result in a reduction of symptoms and improved mood

Dosage guide

There are no studies on the correct dosage for celiac so it’s best to take small doses at first, observe how your body responds, then gradually increase until you find what works best.

Some people find relief with as little as 5mg a day, so start low and increase it until you find the minimum effective dose.

There is no clear maximum dose, in fact many studies have involved participants taking 300 – 500 mg a day, but it is always best to aim for maximum effect from minimum dosage.

Other ways CBD can help people suffering from gluten intolerance or other autoimmune disorders

CBD can also help celiacs by reducing:

  • constipation
  • diarrhea
  • abdominal pain
  • weight loss
  • malnutrition.

For some celiac sufferers who experience neuropathy or nerve damage, the anti-inflammatory effects of cannabis can be especially helpful.

Side effects of CBD

CBD has generally been found to be a safe and beneficial supplement for celiac patients who are following a celiac diet. However there are certain side effects that it is good to be aware of.

The most common include:

Other ways to treat celiac disease – diet, medication, and surgery

The best way to control celiac is through diet. This will help to maintain it in remission and prevent any flare-ups. The ideal diet needs to be gluten free, low in lactose, high in fibre, and include enough calories. The goal is to get patients to eat as much varied food as possible while avoiding the foods they cannot eat.

A gluten-free diet does not work for everyone with celiac disease. Some people have symptoms even when they eat gluten free or stick to their “safe” foods list.

Alternative ways of treating celiac might include medication such as anti-inflammatory drugs that suppress immunity in your intestines so it can start making healthy tissue again without getting attacked by your body’s antibodies.

Surgery for celiac disease is an option when medications are no longer effective, or if they cannot be used. It can help both children and adults who have severe symptoms despite following a strict gluten-free diet.

FAQ
How long should you use CBD before seeing results and how much should you take each day?

Many celiac patients report that cannabis helps ease the symptoms of celiac disease. But before you can understand how long it will take for CBD to work, and what dose is right for your body, you might need a little bit more information about celiac disease itself.

How long will It take?

The effects of most medicines are not immediate because they involve chemical processes in our bodies—including ones we know very little about. For example, scientists still don’t completely understand all the ways THC (the psychoactive part of marijuana) affects us; but studies show that some people feel its anti-nausea benefits almost immediately while others do not experience any effect until several hours later, or even after several doses have been tried over time.

How can I find out if CBD is right for me, or my loved one with celiac disease?

It is always a good idea to talk to a medical professional before taking CBD oil for celiac disease, or any issue involving the intestinal tract, digestive system, or the body’s immune system. They can advise you of dosage and also ensure that there could be no issue with your current medical regime.

Eat a healthy balanced diet, high in fibre and low in processed foods and gluten

Ways to reduce the risk of developing celiac disease

There are some simple steps you can take to reduce your risk of celiac disease. These include:

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What kind of cbd oil is best for back pain

Best CBD Oil for Pain Relief & Inflammation: Highest Quality Brands On The Market

Over the past three years, CBD oil has become increasingly popular as a health and wellness supplement.

One of the main reasons people are interested in trying CBD oil is because of its pain-killing benefits. We’ll get into the details of how CBD is suggested to help with pain later, along with some suggestions for the best CBD oils for pain and inflammation.

The ability for CBD to help with pain is a significant advantage over conventional pain management options — which often involve addictive and potentially harmful medications. Instead, this natural supplement has very few side effects and an exceptional safety profile — all without compromising on effectiveness.

But how do you choose the right CBD oil for the job?

This is an important question to ask because the truth of the matter is that not all CBD oils work. Many simply contain too little CBD to be of any help, while others contain harmful contaminants like heavy metals, pesticides, or chemical solvents — all of which could add to the pain you’re already experiencing by damaging the sensitive nerve cells around the body.

We’re going to cover all of this in the article below. You’ll learn how to spot a high-quality CBD oil and how current evidence shows CBD to work inside the body.

This is a big topic, so let’s get started with our list of top-rated CBD oils for pain.

Top 10 Best CBD Oil Brands for Pain Management in 2022

Not sure which CBD oil to buy to help with chronic pain? Before we get into the nitty-gritty of how CBD is suggested to work for pain and inflammation, here’s our top 5 list of CBD oils I’ve used myself for back pain.

We’ll also offer some advice on a few ways you can spot a trustworthy CBD vendor even if they didn’t quite make it onto our list.

I’ve been using CBD for over 5 years now and I’ve stumbled upon some stellar companies with top-notch oils and fly-by-night businesses with oils that can’t simply don’t work.

I have a relatively short list of CBD brands that I fully trust and I want to share my choices with you so you can avoid some of the headaches and disappointment I’ve already endured.

Here are my top 10 CBD oil brands for pain:

1. Royal CBD (Best CBD Oil On The Market)

Technical Details
Total CBD Content 250 – 2500 mg
Available Flavors Natural, Mint, Vanilla, Berry
Potency 8.3 – 83.3 mg/mL

Get 15% off all Royal CBD products. Use code “CFAH” at checkout.

Why Royal CBD is My Top Pick:

As skeptical as I am towards the majority of new CBD brands, I decided to give Royal CBD a try because I liked the company’s dedication to quality. I love seeing companies that take what they do seriously.

You can tell right away from the color, flavor, and consistency of the oil that you’re dealing with a product well above average.

This oil is cheaper than most of the other premium CBD oils I’ve tried, comes in a full range of potencies, and uses some of the best full-spectrum hemp extracts I’ve ever seen. I’ve heard friends using this brand for quite some time and decided to give it a try for myself — so I ordered a few bottles in different strengths.

After taking the Royal CBD’s 2500mg full-spectrum CBD oil for just over a week, I noticed an improvement in my back pain. There was a time when I had serious problems falling asleep because of the sharp pains in my back that seemed to intensify whenever I laid down to fall asleep. It was a nightmare. I’d lay awake for hours changing positions to try and find a spot that didn’t leave me writhing in discomfort.

With this oil, my experience went far beyond what I expected. Not only did it help ease the pain, but my overall quality of sleep improved. I mean, I didn’t sleep longer but I began to wake up rested and with a clear head.

My favorite combination for this particular oil is the vanilla in the 1000 mg bottle. This is the largest potency option currently offered by Royal CBD and has the best value overall. I took the oil twice per day, once in the morning when I woke up, and again in the evening before bed. One bottle of the 1000 mg CBD oil lasted me about a month.

  • Sourced from US-grown organic hemp
  • Extracted with supercritical CO2
  • Contains the full spectrum of cannabinoids and terpenes
  • Available in 4 different strengths
  • Up to 2500mg of CBD per bottle
  • Lab-tested for potency and purity
  • Great natural flavors (no aftertaste and comes in multiple flavor options)
  • Free shipping within the USA
  • Newer brand on the market that only sells online, no physical presence

2. Gold Bee (Best Organic CBD Oil)

  • Premium Colorado-grown hemp
  • CO2 extraction
  • Contains full-spectrum CBD
  • Delicious kiwi flavor
  • Sweetened with organic honey
  • Lab-tested for potency and purity
  • Only one flavored option available
  • No high-strength oils (yet)

What I Like About Gold Bee:

I honestly believe Gold Bee makes the best organic CBD products out there. The brand combines premium Colorado-grown hemp with organic honey sourced from the Brazillian Rainforest. While Gold Bee offers a modest selection of oils — with up to 1200 mg of CBD per bottle — the formula is spot-on when it comes to the quality of ingredients. I’m totally not going to complain about the potency, as my back pain and sleep quality got better than with some high-strength oils I’ve tried in the past. Considering the quality of these products, they actually come at a bargain price. If you want to try other formats from Gold Bee, you can choose between its high-strength capsules and CBD-infused honey.

3. CBDPure (Runner Up)

Technical Details
Total CBD Content 100 – 600 mg
Available Flavors None
Potency 1.6 – 10 mg/mL
What I Like About CBDPure CBD Oil:

I love how transparent this company is. If I were judging companies solely by their transparency level, CBDPure would have scored the second place, right after Royal CBD. The company provides all the details about each stage of production when making this CBD oil. You can find all the third-party lab test results for each batch on the product page — something we’ve come to expect from any high-quality CBD company.

What really makes this company stand out is its incredible satisfaction guarantee. If you order the product and decide it wasn’t working for you, simply send it back and get a full refund. This satisfaction guarantee extends over 3 whole months — which is about three times longer than the industry average.

I keep a bottle or two of CBDPure oil in my medicine cabinet for achy moments after a run or hike with the kids.

The only real downside to this oil is the potency — which comes in denominations of 1.5, 5, and 10 mg/mL. This is suitable for more minor symptoms, but may not be enough for people with heavy CBD demands.

  • Sourced from Colorado-grown organic hemp
  • Extracted with supercritical CO2
  • Tested for the cannabinoid content and purity in a third-party lab
  • Rock-solid 90-day return policy
  • Narrow product range
  • Low potency
  • They don’t ship to every state (i.e. Louisiana, Indiana, Arkansas, Kansas)

4. HempBombs

Technical Details
Total CBD Content 300 – 4000 mg
Available Flavors Unflavored, Acai Berry, Orange Creamsicle, Peppermint, Watermelon
Potency 10 – 133.3 mg/mL
What I Like About HempBombs:

I used HempBombs CBD isolate-based hemp oil for quite some time before switching to full-spectrum CBD oil and in my opinion, this is the best brand when it comes to CBD isolates. Their products contain 99% pure CBD and ZERO THC.

Now don’t get me wrong, CBD isolates are great, they offer consistent doses of CBD, contain 0% THC, and are generally cheaper than their full-spectrum counterparts. In most cases, I like using a full-spectrum extract like Royal CBD oil because of something called the entourage effect — which is a concept highlighting the phenomenon where cannabinoids like CBD tend to work better when other hemp-derived compounds are also present.

In isolates, the only cannabinoid present is CBD.

HempBombs CBD oil is available in five different strengths — from 300mg to 4000mg per bottle. The CBD is added in the form of a 99% pure isolate — which means there’s going to be virtually no traceable amounts of any other cannabinoids, including THC, CBC, CBG, or CBN.

You can also buy these oils in different flavors. Hemp Bombs often adds new flavors to the list, but my all-time personal favorite is the Acai berry. It’s not too sweet but adds a really pleasant flavor to the otherwise bland CBD and MCT oil formula.

  • Sourced from 100% certified organic hemp from European farms
  • Extracted with supercritical CO2
  • Completely THC-free
  • Tested in third-party laboratories for purity and potency
  • Available in 5 separate strengths
  • Up to 4000mg of CBD per bottle
  • Lacks the synergistic effects from other cannabinoids
  • The highest potencies are overkill for most users
  • Uses synthetic flavoring agents

5. CBDistillery

Technical Details
Total CBD Content 250 – 5000 mg
Available Flavors None
Potency 8.3 – 166 mg/mL
What I Like About CBDistillery:

CBDistillery is now one of the largest CBD companies in North America. The company began in 2016 as a legacy brand for Balanced Health Botanicals.

Over the years, CBDistillery has had the chance to really dial-in its CBD oil formula. The company now sells its CBD oil in two formats — “full-spectrum” and “THC-free.” The THC-free option is great for people who want to benefit from the synergy of CBD and other cannabinoids but without bringing any THC whatsoever into their system.

Even the full-spectrum option contains less than 0.3% THC — which is well below the amount needed to cause any psychoactive effects. These oils are both completely non-psychoactive.

You can choose between five different strengths, starting at 250mg up to 5000mg of CBD per bottle. This covers just about every range of potencies you would ever need. We recommend opting for the higher potency options because they have the best value overall. The higher potency you purchase, the further your dollar gets you.

The more potent options also las the longest because you need smaller amounts of the oil each time to get the desired dose of CBD.

I tried the 1000mg bottle to keep myself calm during the first few months after giving birth to my first son and I must admit it helped me maintain my sanity during that time. I found it to have a remarkable calming effect on the body and mind.

  • Available as full-spectrum CBD or pure CBD oil (THC-free)
  • 5 strengths to choose from
  • Carries up to 33.3 mg of CBD per mL (in the 1000 mg bottle)
  • Excellent value CBD oil
  • The hemp isn’t certified organic
  • No flavor options available
  • The company website is clunky and hard to navigate

6. NuLeaf Naturals

Technical Details
Total CBD Content 240 – 4850 mg
Available Flavors None
Potency 48.5 mg/mL
What I Like About NuLeaf Naturals

Nuleaf Naturals is one of the most popular CBD companies in the United States — most likely related to how long the company has been in the business of selling CBD. Nuleaf naturals were one of the first CBD companies to enter the mainstream market.

Despite the companies longstanding reputation, Nuleaf Naturals only sells one CBD oil. When you go to the website you’ll find a few different options, including a pet oil — but it’s important to understand that these are all the exact same full-spectrum extract, the only difference is the bottle sizes.

We love the simplicity of Nuleaf Naturals product lineup. The oils come with a decent potency of around 48 mg/mL, and just about every bottle size you can imagine. This makes it easy for everybody to find a product that works for them regardless of the budget.

With that said, if you have the cash, we highly recommend getting the larger bottle sizes in order to get the best value for your money.

You can choose between five different sizes:

  • Sourced from organic Colorado-grown hemp
  • Extracted using supercritical CO2
  • Made from a full-spectrum hemp extract
  • More expensive than the other brands in this ranking
  • Narrow product range

7. Charlotte’s Web

Technical Details
Total CBD Content 200 – 1800 mg
Available Flavors Mint Chocolate, Lemon Twist, Orange Blossom, Olive Oil
Potency 7 – 60 mg/mL

About Charlotte’s Web:

Charlotte’s Web is one of the pioneers in the American CBD industry. Established by the Stanley Brothers, the company has coined a reputation of a trustworthy manufacturer by helping now late Charlotte Figi with her treatment-resistant epilepsy. Although the company has recently received a warning letter from the FDA due to their health claims, they still have many faithful customers and a massive number of positive reviews on the web.

Charlotte’s Web CBD oil comes in several potencies: 200 mg, 500 mg, 1500 mg, and 1800 mg of CBD per bottle. The highest strength offers 60 mg of full-spectrum CBD per milliliter. There are two bottle sizes to choose from: 30 mL and 100 mL; Charlotte’s Web also has flavored variants of its CBD oil, including Lemon Twist, Orange Blossom, Mint Chocolate, and Olive Oil.

What could the company do better?

First off, they could change their extraction method because they use ethanol, which is less efficient than CO2 extraction. Secondly, and most importantly, the suspension in olive oil makes them taste a bit bitter — even in the flavored versions.

Pros:

  • One of the most reputable brands on the market
  • Full-spectrum CBD
  • Delicious flavored versions
  • Up to 1800 mg of CBD per bottle
  • Available in two sizes: 30 mL and 100 mL
  • Third-party tested for potency and purity

Cons:

  • Non-organic hemp
  • Ethanol extraction
  • Suspension in olive oil (bitter taste)
  • The company received a warning letter from the FDA in the past due to inappropriate health claims

8. cbdMD

Technical Details
Total CBD Content 300 – 7500 mg
Available Flavors Natural, Berry, Orange, Mint
Potency 10 – 250 mg/mL

About cbdMD:

cbdMD is another popular manufacturer that offers a wide range of CBD extracts, from tinctures to gummies to capsules, bath bombs, topicals, sleep aids, and pet products.

The brand offers a wide range of pure CBD oils, with up to 7500 mg of CBD per bottle. The highest potency comes with a whopping dose of 200 mg of pure CBD suspended in MCT oil for higher bioavailability and a smoother flavor. cbdMD also has three flavored CBD oils: Berry, Orange, and Mint.

Despite an impressive potency range, cbdMD uses broad-spectrum CBD in their products, which doesn’t evoke the full entourage effect. The higher potency may not necessarily mean better results in this case.

The company has high transparency standards; not only does cbdMD broadly describe their activity from farming to testing, but they also provide batch-specific certificates of analysis for their products, including the results for potency and common contaminants like pesticides, heavy metals, and residual solvents.

Pros:

  • US-grown, non-GMO hemp
  • CO2 extraction
  • THC-free
  • Up to 7500 mg of CBD per bottle
  • Batch-specific certificates of analysis

Cons:

  • Limited entourage effect due to the lack of THC
  • Most people don’t need such high doses of CBD in their routine

9. Medterra

Technical Details
Total CBD Content 500 – 3000 mg
Available Flavors Natural, Citrus, Mint Chocolate
Potency 16 – 100 mg/mL

About Medterra:

Medterra is a small craft company from California. The brand offers premium CBD oils in different spectra: full-spectrum CBD, broad-spectrum CBD, and isolates. The potency of these products ranges between 500 mg and 3000 mg of CBD per bottle, which is a standard range. On top of the unflavored version, there are two flavored options: Citrus and Chocolate

Medterra prides itself on making the real full-spectrum CBD because each bottle of its full-spectrum CBD oil comes with 2 mg of THC. However, these products are only legal in the states that have legalized higher amounts of THC for recreational use. So, if you want to buy the company’s products in all 50 states, your options are limited to broad-spectrum CBD and CBD isolate. These provide more CBD per bottle — upwards of 1000 mg.

The entire Medterra’s product range is tested in a third-party laboratory for their CBD content and safety.

Pros:

  • Premium-grade CBD oils
  • Up to 3000 mg of CBD per bottle
  • Available as full-spectrum CBD, broad-spectrum CBD, and isolates
  • Lab tested for potency and purity

Cons:

  • The “real” full-spectrum CBD oil isn’t available in all states
  • Some of the lab reports indicate higher CBD levels than stated on the bottle
  • No discounts for returning customers

10. Joy Organics

Technical Details
Total CBD Content 450 – 900 mg
Available Flavors Tranquil Mint, Fresh Lime, Summer Lemon
Potency 15 – 30 mg/mL

About Joy Organics:

Joy Organics holds the reputation of one of the most reputable CBD vendors in the industry. The company was established by a woman named Joy Smith, who has been using CBD oil to manage her problems with pain and sleep. After experiencing the benefits of CBD first-hand, she has decided to share her passion for cannabis with other health-conscious consumers.

The brand sells a range of broad-spectrum CBD products from certified organic hemp. They have many positive reviews all over the Internet; they also haven’t received any warning letter regarding health claims from the FDA — unlike many companies in this space (even the veterans like Charlotte’s Web).

The Joy Organics CBD oil features a broad-spectrum CBD formula in a modest potency range, from 450 to 900 mg of CBD per bottle. You can choose from three refreshing flavors: Summer Lemon, Fresh Lime, and Tranquil Mint. The strongest version of the Joy Organics CBD oil contains 30 mg of broad-spectrum CBD in every milliliter, which is a standard dose for most people who take CBD oil for daily supplementation.

In 2018, one of the company’s flavored CBD oils was found to contain a fungicide that is commonly sprayed on citrus fruit during independent lab testing. Fortunately, Joy Organics recalled the product shortly after this incident and implemented a new third-party testing system to make sure there are no flaws in the end product.

Pros:

  • Non-GMO, US-grown hemp
  • Supercritical CO2 extraction
  • Broad-spectrum CBD
  • THC-free
  • Delicious flavors

Cons:

  • A bit expensive
  • No high-strength oils

CBD Oil for Pain Management: Complete Guide for Beginners

Now that we’ve covered a few CBD oil options that are going to provide the best value for your money, let’s discuss how CBD is suggested to support chronic pain in the first place. We’ll also cover some of the most common ways people are using CBD oil for pain.

What is CBD Oil?

CBD stands for cannabidiol _ it’s one of the primary active ingredients in the cannabis plant. It’s completely non-psychoactive and offers a wide range of benefits to the human body.

CBD oil is a combination of a CBD extract, with a carrier oil to help dissolve and store the CBD. Most CBD oils use carrier oils like MCT oil, or hemp seed oil — which is then combined with CBD isolate, or full-spectrum hemp extract rich in CBD and other similar cannabinoids.

Cannabinoids like CBD are fat-soluble — which means they dissolve when mixed with oil, but won’t dissolve in water. By dissolving these compounds in an oil solution, the CBD becomes much easier to store and use. Instead of measuring out micrograms of CBD crystals or hemp resin, all you need to do is measure oil to get your dose of CBD. This can be done using a simple dropper that comes standard with most CBD oils.

Because of their ease of use, and long shelf-life, CBD oils have become the go-to method of using CBD and other hemp extracts.

You can also opt-out to use CBD-infused gummies if you wanted something discreetly, read our in-depth review on CBD Gummies to understand better.

How Does CBD Work?

Cannabis has been used for managing pain and inflammation for thousands of years.

The earliest records of the medical use of the herb date back to ancient China when the emperor Shen-Nung placed it among other therapeutic substances in the Chinese pharmacopeia (1). The leaves were wrapped around an injury as a poultice to reduce pain and discomfort, and reverse swelling and bruising.

Despite being a known medicine for a long time, scientists have only recently begun to unlock the mechanisms cannabis uses to achieve its important pain-killing benefits.

Since the discovery of the endocannabinoid system in 1992, CBD and other phytocannabinoids have been in the spotlight of modern medicine.

The endocannabinoid system is one of the most important neurochemical networks in the human body (2). It works by interacting with the endocannabinoid system — a series of hormones and receptors that help regulate over a dozen core processes in the human body. The active compounds in the cannabis plant are very similar to the naturally-produced hormones involved with our endocannabinoid system.

By interacting with the endocannabinoid system, CBD and other cannabinoids are able to modulate several key processes, such as:

  • Appetite
  • Immune function
  • Memory
  • Mood
  • Stress
  • Sensory perception (including pain)
  • Inflammation
  • Reproductive health
  • Nerve function
  • Sleep

How Can CBD Reduce Pain Transmission?

How does all of this relate to pain? The answer lies in the way pain is transmitted to the brain.

When we injure ourselves, cells in the immediate vicinity begin releasing compounds that trigger a cascade of inflammation and sensory activation — which is what triggers the pain transmission.

The pain signal is then sent to the spinal cord through a network of nerves distributed all around the body.

Once in the spine, the pain signal is sent through a gateway (opioid and vanilloid receptors) designed to limit the amount of signal that ends up in the brain for processing. This works like a border crossing. The border security decides whether or not you’re allowed to enter and what you can take with you.

In the context of pain, these gateways can limit the amount of pain signal that continues across the border to the brain. If more pain signal is allowed to pass, the brain perceives more pain. If the pain is stopped at the border, the brain perceives less pain.

Conventional pain medications work by activating the opioid receptors acting as a key gateway for pain transmission to the brain.

CBD has a similar effect, but through a different receptor is known as the vanilloid receptors. These vanilloid receptors are tasked with regulating a specific form of pain caused by either heat or inflammation. CBD has been reported to modulate this vanilloid receptor — leading to a reduction in the pain signals sent to the brain from inflammatory causes such as arthritis, muscle damage, or infection, to name a few.

CBD has other ways it can limit pain transmission as well:

  • CBD may reduce inflammation, limiting the initial cause of pain in the body
  • CBD acts as an antioxidant, helping the body resist and recover from damage
  • CBD relaxes muscle fibers, reducing pain caused by muscle spasms and tightness

More research is needed to fully understand how CBD and other active cannabinoids can block pain. Every year dozens of new research papers are published in an attempt to paint a clear picture of how CBD works, how to get the most benefit from the supplement, and what its limitations are.

(Pain Transmission Pathway to the Brain)

Choosing CBD Oil Companies: How to Differentiate the Good From the Bad

CBD has become a lucrative business. Companies are selling a myriad of different CBD oils and other products in an attempt to cash in on the new health trend. This means there are a lot of excellent products coming to market, but it also means there’s a lot of trash as well. It’s important as a CBD user that you understand what makes a CBD oil good, and what makes it bad so you can avoid wasting your money, or worse — using CBD oils that contain harmful or damaging ingredients.

Let’s cover the most important points to remember when shopping for CBD oil online or in-store.

1. Check the Hemp Source

The source of the hemp used to make the oil is vitally important when it comes to determining which CBD oils are the best. The main reason comes down to the botany of the hemp plant itself.

Hemp is a bio-accumulator — which means it has the tendency to absorb compounds from the soil and accumulate them in its leaves, stems, and roots. The deep taproots of the hemp plant stretch far beneath the soil, pulling out and storing all the heavy metals and other elements it can find in the soil.

This aspect is in part why hemp is so nutritious, but it also means that plants grown in contaminated soils often contain contaminants that can be harmful to your health. Some of the worst offenders are heavy metals — which can build up in the body over time and lead to severe long-term health effects.

You want to avoid consuming heavy metals at all costs.

Poorly grown hemp could contain heavy metals, as well as other contaminants like mycotoxins, or pesticide residues that will end up in the CBD oil after all the processing is complete.

For this reason, it’s important to purchase CBD oil from companies that account for this effect. Only buy from company’s that make an effort to source hemp from organic farms, and take measures to assess every batch of hemp that enters the facility to determine heavy metal, microbial contaminant, and pesticide contamination.

The best hemp sources tend to come from states like Oregon, Colorado, or Alabama, as well as neighboring countries like Canada or Scandinavian countries. These places are all known for having high standards for hemp cultivation, and clean soils.

2. Look for CO2 Extracted Products

Once the company has the hemp, they need to extract the CBD from it. You can do this in many different ways using solvents like ethanol, methanol, hexane, ether, or butane. All of these solvents work to strip the active compounds from the hemp plant and can then be evaporated to leave behind a pure CBD-rich resin.

however, there’s a problem with these solvents.

Even in professional lab settings, it can be very difficult to remove all traces of these solvents from the final product. Most of these solvents are toxic to the human body, even in trace amounts.

Therefore, the best companies are using another method to strop the active ingredients from the starting hemp material. This method uses CO2 placed under high pressure. the high pressure and temperature control convert the CO2 into a phase that’s neither liquid nor gas. This special state is referred to as being supercritical.

Supercritical CO2 acts just like any other solvent, but with one key benefit — as soon as the pressure is relieved, the gas evaporates completely, leaving behind no harmful chemical residues.

when shopping for CBD oil, it’s ideal to look for a company that uses supercritical CO2 to extract the CBD rather than the toxic solvents mentioned above. Supercritical CO2 is very expensive and highly technical — but usually produces a far superior product in the end.

If a company is using harsh solvents like butane or propane (or they don’t tell you anything about their extraction methods), it’s a sign that you should look for another brand.

3. Ask for Third-Party Lab Reports

Every company has the option to send their products to an independent lab or third-party testing.

These laboratory tests check for the entire cannabinoid profile of the extract and are able to detect over 200 common contaminants.

Before a CBD product becomes available for sale, it should pass the laboratory test for potency and purity. If any inconsistencies are shown between different batches of the same product, the company should rework it and send it for analysis once again.

High-quality CBD companies will continually send each batch of product to a lab with no affiliation to the company (called a third-party or independent lab) for testing. These results are then published publicly on the website for customers to view.

The best companies will take this even one step further — adding a database and batch numbers on every bottle of CBD oil so you can view the results for your specific bottle of oil. Third-party testing is now an industry standard.

Always buy your CBD oil from companies that show third-party lab reports on their website. Only then will you know what’s inside the bottle before you even order a product. If the company is producing CBD oil that’s as high quality, as they say, there should be nothing to hide in these lab tests and they should be listed publicly on the company website. If you can’t find them on the site, you can ask customer service for these as well.

If these tests don’t exist, or you can’t track them down from the website or customer service — it’s best to avoid this company and move on to another that takes this important step seriously.

What the Research Says About Using CBD Oil for Pain:

Understanding how CBD works is no simple task. This compound is incredibly complex — working through a number of unrelated receptors around the body, interacting with enzymes, cell membranes, and various other cell structures. This makes studying CBD very difficult.

Nevertheless, there have been thousands of research papers published on medical marijuana — seeking to understand the interaction between cannabinoids like CBD and the human body. A lot of this research specifically focused on the effects of CBD on various forms and causes of pain. Let’s explore some of the results this research has yielded in the context of pain management.

1. CBD Oil for Chronic Back & Nerve Pain

The painkilling properties of cannabidiol have been most thoroughly studied in animal models, as well as a handful of human clinical trials.

One of the best studies we have available on the topic is a meta-analysis published in 2017. This analysis looked at 24 different clinical trials involving 1,334 patients over several years and demographics. These studies all used various forms of cannabis for treating chronic pain. The analysis reports that many of these studies showed a reduction in chronic pain scores by 50% or more (3) — suggesting the cannabis plant to be a potential treatment for chronic pain.

Another clinical trial looked at the effects of a combination of CBD to THC in the treatment of intractable cancer pain. This study found that twice as many people in the treatment group given CBD and THC had a 30% or more reduction in pain symptoms at the conclusion of the trial (6).

Even though more clinical trials on humans are needed to gauge how CBD affects specific forms of pain or other conditions, scientists believe the efficacy of CBD in treating chronic pain is related to its anti-inflammatory effects (3).

2. CBD Oil for Arthritis

CBD has had a lot of research as a potential alternative to prescription and non-prescription pain medications commonly used for alleviating arthritis pain.

Researchers have found a clear link between the endocannabinoid system and the pathophysiology of osteoarthritis, which is a degenerative joint disease associated with chronic pain and inflammation (4).

One of the key areas CBD is thought to support osteoarthritis specifically is through the effects on an enzyme known as 5-lipoxygenase — AKA 5-LOX. CBD has been shown to inhibit this enzyme (7), which converts fatty acids into pro-inflammatory compounds. These inflammatory messengers have been shown to be a key component in the underlying inflammation involved with osteoarthritis (8).

By reducing the underlying causes of arthritis pain, CBD is thought to reduce the overall burden of pain from the condition over the long term.

3. CBD and Multiple Sclerosis (MS) Pain

Due to its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties, CBD is a potent neuroprotective — which is how experts believe CBD is able to relieve debilitating MS pain, —which affects roughly 50–70% of patients diagnosed with the condition.

A study conducted on animals at Cajan Institute tested the anti-inflammatory effects of CBD on mice the researchers wanted to find out if CBD can provide a reversed inflammatory response on those cells. After ten days, the researchers found a reduction in inflammatory markers with a rodent encephalitis model designed to imitate the impact MS has on the body (5).

More research is needed to see exactly how these effects are translated to humans. Currently, there are 23 clinical trials currently underway, or planned within the next 12 months seeking to explore the effects of CBD on MS.

4. CBD Oil in Sports: Injuries & Muscle Endurance

Cannabidiol can be applied in two different ways when it comes to pain and physical activities. For example, when you administer CBD orally in the form of oil as a post-workout, it helps alleviate the muscle inflammation that troubles athletes once they go beyond the edge again.

If, however, you’re suffering from an injury, it’s best to apply CBD topically. Its anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective properties allow the cannabinoid to relieve pain and improve regeneration capacities.

Does CBD Have Any Side Effects?

The main reason why parents are so enthusiastic about CBD is that this cannabinoid is completely non-intoxicating, doesn’t cause addiction, and has only a few mild side effects when taken at excessive doses.

Research shows that even doses up to one and a half grams have no severe side effects on human health (9).

Despite being a notoriously safe supplement, there are some side effects of using CBD in high doses. Let’s cover the most common side effects people report from using CBD:

  • Anxiety
  • Brain fog
  • Reduced appetite
  • Mood changes
  • Diarrhea or constipation
  • Dizziness or lightheadedness
  • Drowsiness or fatigue
  • Dry mouth
  • Nausea and vomiting

The most common side effect by far, like other forms of cannabis, is dry mouth. This is best managed by taking your CBD oil along with some juice like pineapple or orange juice.

Another common side effect is lowered blood pressure, which may trigger another unwanted reaction — lightheadedness. This side effect is important to consider if you suffer from low blood pressure already or are taking blood pressure-lowering medications.

Always consult your doctor before using CBD or other cannabis extracts if you’re taking prescription medications or have underlying medical conditions.

In Summary: Buying CBD Oil For Pain

As CBD becomes more popular around the world, scientists are publishing new research on cannabinoids on a near-weekly basis. As time goes on, experts are mapping out the complicated mechanisms CBD and other hemp derivatives are using to support both acute and chronic pain of all different origins.

Here are the main takeaways from the current research:

  • CBD inhibits inflammation at several different levels
  • CBD offers antioxidant support
  • CBD may relieve muscle tension and inflammation
  • CBD interacts with the vanilloid receptors in the brain responsible for regulating inflammatory pain transmission

When it comes to pain, CBD appears to target the cause of the problem instead of just masking its symptoms.

Getting relief on so many levels and without any harmful side effects or risk of addiction is the reason why CBD oil has become so popular over the past half a decade.

I hope this guide has managed to clear up any confusion regarding CBD oil and pain, and given you the insight necessary to find the right CBD oil for the job.

Have you tried CBD oil for chronic pain? Did you feel any difference? Let me know in the comments below!

References:

  1. Brand, E. J., & Zhao, Z. (2017). Cannabis in Chinese Medicine: Are Some Traditional Indications Referenced in Ancient Literature Related to Cannabinoids?. Frontiers in pharmacology, 8, 108.
  2. Alger B. E. (2013). Getting high on the endocannabinoid system. Cerebrum: the Dana forum on brain science, 2013, 14.
  3. Aviram, J., Samuelly-Leichtag, G. (2017) Efficacy of Cannabis-Based Medicines for Pain Management: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials. Pain Physician, 20(6), E755-E796.
  4. Bruni, N., Della Pepa, C., Oliaro-Bosso, S., Pessione, E., Gastaldi, D., & Dosio, F. (2018). Cannabinoid Delivery Systems for Pain and Inflammation Treatment. Molecules (Basel, Switzerland), 23(10), 2478.
  5. Elliott, D. M., Singh, N., Nagarkatti, M., & Nagarkatti, P. S. (2018). Cannabidiol Attenuates Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis Model of Multiple Sclerosis Through Induction of Myeloid-Derived Suppressor Cells. Frontiers in immunology, 9, 1782.
  6. Johnson, J. R., Burnell-Nugent, M., Lossignol, D., Ganae-Motan, E. D., Potts, R., & Fallon, M. T. (2010). Multicenter, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, parallel-group study of the efficacy, safety, and tolerability of THC: CBD extract and THC extract in patients with intractable cancer-related pain. Journal of pain and symptom management, 39(2), 167-179.
  7. Takeda, S., Usami, N., Yamamoto, I., & Watanabe, K. (2009). Cannabidiol-2′, 6′-dimethyl ether, a cannabidiol derivative, is a highly potent and selective 15-lipoxygenase inhibitor. Drug Metabolism and Disposition.
  8. Lascelles, B. D. X., King, S., Roe, S., Marcellin‐Little, D. J., & Jones, S. (2009). Expression and activity of COX‐1 and 2 and 5‐LOX in joint tissues from dogs with naturally occurring coxofemoral joint osteoarthritis. Journal of orthopaedic research, 27(9), 1204-1208.Chicago
Nina Julia

Nina created CFAH.org following the birth of her second child. She was a science and math teacher for 6 years prior to becoming a parent — teaching in schools in White Plains, New York and later in Paterson, New Jersey.

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The best CBD oil brands for back pain in 2021

While medications continue to help manage aches, alternative options such as CBD (cannabidiol) can also assist. While CBD is available in various forms, CBD oil is the commonest.

If you are you looking for the best CBD oil which can relief you from these pains specially the back ones, You have come to the right place, Below is a guide on how CBD oil could help with backache, products to consider using, and other vital details you should know.

CBD oil: A revolution for pain relief?

Back pain occurs due to different reasons. Whether you got hurt or have a medical condition causing you discomfort, you need something that provides relief safely. Apart from prescription drugs, CBD oil is a product to consider using. It alleviates different forms of pain, including backache, to help users live a more comfortable life and be productive. Reviews from buyers who have used and continue to utilize CBD oil reveal the formula’s positive effect in reducing pain.

Nonetheless, you should be keen during purchase to ensure you spend money on only the best CBD oil for pain. Not every brand you come across is worth buying, considering the FDA does not regulate the CBD industry.

It is a new market, and it is possible to come across unprofessional individuals selling low-quality CBD oil. Substandard formulations do not offer the relief you need and might cause adverse side effects. Various aspects make up the best CBD oils for pain. For starters, make sure you buy CBD oil made using organically grown hemp, which is free of pesticides, chemical fertilizers, and herbicides. Some CBD companies grow their own hemp, and others source it from farmers.

Another factor to look out for is the CBD extraction methods. The best way to derive CBD from hemp is using the supercritical CO2 process. It is a solvent-free procedure that enables manufacturers to make clean CBD. Many leading CBD brands use this method to make different products.

The best CBD oil for back pain should undergo third-party testing. Lab experts check it for cannabinoids and contaminants such as microbials, heavy metals, and pesticides. You should get the lab report on the manufacturer’s website using the QR code or lot number present on the bottle.

Apart from CBD, cannabidiol oil contains a carrier oil such as MCT, hemp seed oil, and olive oil. However, MCT is a popular choice among many top CBD brands. It has a high bioavailability that enhances fast absorption of CBD oil into your body.

Make sure that the carrier oil is all-natural and safe to protect your body against the harm that synthetic components cause. Nevertheless, some companies provide flavored CBD oil. The flavoring should also be from organic sources to safeguard your wellbeing.

Aside from the lab reports, the best CBD oil brands are also transparent about their manufacturing procedure and ingredients. You get to know how the CBD oil you are looking at is made and the components used in making it. That way, if you have any allergies, you can easily tell which CBD oils to avoid. Note that MCT oil is made from coconut, and if you are allergic, you can buy CBD oil with hemp seed oil or olive oil instead.

Does it actually work? A scientific overview

CBD oil offers pain relief, and pain is one of the most studied benefits of CBD. Studies have shown CBD to have the ability to alleviate aches, including back pain. However, it has been noted that CBD works better for pain when used with THC. Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) is the cannabinoid responsible for making users feel high. Hemp contains only 0.3 % THC or less. Such an amount is too low to make you high.

There are types of CBD used in making CBD oil. One is full-spectrum, which contains different cannabinoids, including the minimal THC. It also has terpenes, fatty acids, oils, and flavonoids. These ingredients work together to provide the entourage effect, which enhances CBDs effectiveness.

Broad-spectrum CBD has no THC but contains cannabinoids and terpenes. On the other hand, CBD isolate has CBD only and nothing else. The CBD type you select depends on your preferability.

Even if CBD works better for pain if used alongside THC, the 0.3% THC in full-spectrum CBD might not make such a big difference compared to the THC-free CBDs (broad-spectrum and isolate). Therefore, whichever CBD type you choose provides the pain relief you need to feel better.

The other explanation why CBD oil helps with back pain is because it works with the endocannabinoid system (ECS) in the human body. Experts discovered that the system regulates different functions in the body, including pain, mood, sleep, appetite, and immunity responses.

It keeps your body in balance. CBD boosts the ECS’ effectiveness in handling its functions; therefore, providing relief for discomforts such as pain. Besides, CBD has anti-inflammatory properties that alleviate pain from inflammation-related conditions.

What are the best CBD oil brands for back pain in 2021?

Choosing the best CBD oil for back pain should be easier, keeping in mind the factors we have mentioned earlier. However, below are some of the best CBD oils you should really consider using.

1) Fab CBD oil

As one of the best CBD oils for pain, Fab CBD oil is a high-grade CBD product with all-natural components. The manufacturer utilizes full-spectrum CBD in the formula, which is available in four potencies 300mg,1200mg, 600mg, and 2400mg. The CBD oil comes in 30ml bottles, and you get it in several flavors natural, mint, citrus, vanilla, and berry. However, Fab CBD uses the CO2 extraction method and third-party tests the CBD oil to ensure users get a high-quality product.

What’s good?

We liked the fact that you can get Fab CBD oil in different potencies and flavors. You are not stuck with one or two options. The brand also has a detailed product description and an informative website. Besides, the lab report is easily accessible, and the company explains the manufacturing process.

What could be improved?

Fab CBD offers full-spectrum CBD oil only. It provides the entourage effect, but some users prefer to use THC-free broad spectrum CBD oil.

2) Medterra CBD Oil

If you need THC-free CBD oil, Medterra CBD oil offers what you are looking for. The company provides both broad-spectrum and isolate CBD oil. The products contain natural ingredients and flavors to ensure your safety.

However, the broad-spectrum CBD oil incorporates minor cannabinoids, including CBDV, CBN, CBG, and CBC. It also has natural terpenes, and you can get it in citrus, unflavored, and strawberry mint flavors.

What’s good?

The fact that Medterra offers THC-free CBD oils is ideal for many users. Broad-spectrum CBD also provides the entourage effect, as it contains extra components besides CBD. However, if you need CBD only from hemp, the brand offers isolate CBD oil for you. Medterra includes a marked dropper that ensures more accuracy when measuring CBD oil servings.

What could be improved?

Apart from the unflavored taste, Medterra offers only two more flavors of broad-spectrum CBD oil. Besides, the company does not mention any flavor when it comes to the CBD isolate oil. Nonetheless, the formulas are high-grade, all-natural, and worth considering for back pain.

3) Nuleaf Naturals CBD oil

Do you need MCT-free CBD oil? Nuleaf Naturals CBD oil has you in mind. The manufacturer utilizes organic hemp seed oil in place of MCT oil. The brand also uses the CO2 extraction method, and the product is available in 300mg, 900mg, 1800mg, 3000mg, and 6000mg. However, Nuleaf CBD oil contains full-spectrum CBD and is lab-verified to ensure quality and purity.

What’s good?

We liked that Nuleaf Naturals makes CBD oil only as their most flagship product. The company does not have that many other cbd products to handle, so it can make the product even better. Even Nuleaf capsules contain Nuleaf CBD oil. Besides, you have several CBD oil potencies to choose from.

What could be improved?

Nuleaf offers full-spectrum CBD oil only with no flavor choices. Some CBD users would like to use THC-free CBD oil, and others might need flavored CBD oil.

How to properly use CBD oil for instant relief

If you have never used CBD oil before, you should start with the lowest dose. CBD oil brands provide CBD oil in different concentrations to ensure beginners and experienced users get what suits them. Start with a daily dosage of 10mg. Evaluate how your body responds to the CBD oil in 1-2 weeks.

If you do not feel any back pain relief, you can increase the dosage slightly. Watch your body’s reaction over the same period as earlier. You should experience relief in the pain you are feeling. If you do not, increase the amount gradually until you find what works for you. Be patient as you establish the right dose for you. Our bodies respond differently to CBD. That is why an effective dose for you might not be for another user.

That being said, if you are on medication or have a health condition, speak to your doctor before using CBD oil for back pain. CBD interacts with some medicines, which might affect their effectiveness.

What advantage does it have other other medications?

CBD oil is a safe product as long as you purchase a high-quality formula with safe, organic components. Most people tolerate it well, and it does not have adverse side effects. You do not need a prescription to use CBD, but you should speak to a doctor if you are on medication or have a health condition.

Besides, CBD oil is simple to use. Many leading brands provide it in bottles that come with droppers for accurate measuring or servings. You administer a few drops under your tongue and wait for 15 seconds or more before swallowing.

The oil moves fast into your bloodstream to provide relief, unlike medications that have to go through your gut. However, you can also add CBD oil to your food and drinks, but it is not the fastest way to get CBD into your system. Besides, some of it will be lost along your digestive tract.

Are there any health complications or side effects from using CBD oil?

As mentioned earlier, high-quality CBD oil is safe and does not contain endangering artificial components. Most people do not face any problems when using CBD oil, which is one of the reasons why it has become so popular in the wellness industry. Nonetheless, CBD in general, has side effects, which are few and rare. They include fatigue, drowsiness, changes in weight and appetite, and diarrhea.

Is using CBD oil for pain relief legal?

According to the 2018 Farm Bill that was signed into federal law, hemp and its derivatives such as CBD are legal at the federal level. Multiple states have legalized hemp, allowing users in various locations to use CBD oil and other cannabidiol products. As long as hemp is legal in your area, you can purchase CBD oil and use it for back pain.

Where to buy CBD oil

You should buy CBD oil online directly from manufacturer websites, where you are confident of getting genuine products. Be on the lookout for deals and discounts and save money. Some brands provide free shipping on all orders or those exceeding a certain amount. You can also get bundle packs at a lower cost.

Instead of buying single items, you can sign up for a subscription plan. That way, you will never run out of CBD oil, and you do not have to keep ordering every other time. You can cancel your subscription at any time if need be.

Could CBD oil help your back pain?

While medications can help manage back pain, CBD oil can also help. However, it does not cure the pain but rather alleviates it. The CBD market provides various brands to choose from, but you should always go for the best products. High-grade CBD oil is made from organic components and goes through third-party testing.

The CBD oils we have discussed are examples of the top products you should consider using. However, if you are on medication or have a health condition, speak to your doctor before using the oil.

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Cbd oil for colon polyps

Cbd oil for colon polyps

Cannabidiol (CBD) is in the news and on the internet, but what is it, and how can it help you?

Fight Colorectal Cancer (Fight CRC) spoke with two experts about CBD and the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved uses.

Victor Melgar, Chief Operations Officer of NALA Health, covered CBD for general human use, while Ashley Glode, PharmD, BCOP, Associate Professor at the University of Colorado Skaggs School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Science, provides Fight CRC with a medical perspective for CBD and medical cannabis.

CBD for General Use

Victor Melgar, Chief Operations Officer of NALA Health tells us that NALA was started with the simple idea that CBD could pave the way for all natural healing and remedies through the power of cannabis. However, CBD is only part of the equation. In fact there are over 100 active and inactive cannabinoids found in the cannabis plant.

What is CBD?

CBD is one of over 100 different Cannabinoids that are extracted from agricultural hemp and cannabis. This cannabinoid does not contain the same psychoactive compounds that give the “high” effect that is in THC, which is why CBD is known as the “medicinal compound” of the plant.

Studies have shown that CBD treats pains, aches, anxiety, and stress and was originally praised by renowned herbalist Nicholas Culpeper for treating gout, skin inflammations, and muscular/joint pain in 1625. According to the US National Library of Medicine, cannabidiol has been shown to treat seizures and syndromes.

How is this all possible? The human body contains an endocannabinoid system (ECS) and already produces cannabinoids daily, which are regulated by two receptors, CB1 and CB2. These receptors are found in our immune and nervous systems, in which they assist in moderating inflammation, our immune response to pathogens, motor control, appetite stimulation, and perception of pain.

There are also non-cannabinoid receptors that are activated by CBD such as serotonin, orphan, vanilloid, and nuclear receptors. These activations are the cause of anti-anxiety and anti-inflammatory relief!

What are the benefits of taking CBD?

Many studies have shown the benefits of taking CBD to reduce seizures in adults and children with various conditions. More studies conducted have shown CBD helps alleviate inflammation-based symptoms, anxiety, stress, insomnia, pain, and seizures. CBD helps alleviate cancer-related symptoms at high doses.

Will CBD make me high?

CBD has no psychoactive effect and therefore, you won’t feel “high.” However, depending on how many milligrams you ingest, you can feel sleepy, very relaxed, and possibly a bodily “floating” sensation.

Will I fail a drug test?

CBD by itself will not show up on an employer’s drug test. The FDA states that CBD products must be at least 99.7% pure CBD and allows only 0.3% THC to make it legally consumer ready. CBD may stay in your system anywhere from 24 hours to a few weeks. That timeframe can change depending on a variety of factors, including metabolism, consumption method, frequency of use, and dosage. Therefore, if a large amount of THC is found in the CBD you are using, it may show on a drug test. Make sure you read the label of the product you are using and that it meets these regulations and guidelines.

Purchasing CBD from a reputable company is a must, and you can read more about CBD regulations below.

Can CBD help me?

Each cannabinoid helps in ways big or small, depending on the combination, ratio, and dosage you are taking.

First, determine what symptom or problem you are experiencing. For example, CBD + CBN would be more effective for sleep-related problems. CBD + CBN + CBG might be more effective for inflammation-based problems. Even though you can take CBD and CBG by themselves, it is more effective to take cannabinoids in pairs or groups because when you combine cannabinoids, you create something known as the “entourage effect,” which allows each cannabinoid to be boosted by the other or a counterpart. By working backward, you can find the right combination for you.

How do I choose a CBD?

Key terms you should look out for are broad spectrum, full spectrum, and CBD isolate. Broad spectrum CBD products contain many cannabinoids in varying amounts such as CBD, CBN, CBC, CBG, to name a few, with no trace amounts of THC.

Full-spectrum products may contain all cannabinoids, including THC. Some full-spectrum products may have CBD isolate, pure CBD with no trace amounts of the other cannabinoids. While CBD works great on its own, due to the entourage effect, it is best to combine CBD with other cannabinoids.

How do I take CBD?

CBD can be taken sublingually (under the tongue), via inhalation or ingestion, or applied topically.

Products exist for each route of consumption. For example, sublingual products include CBD oils of all types taken underneath the tongue. Inhalation products include CBD flower and CBD concentrates, such as shatter and wax. Ingestion products are CBD edibles, such as CBD honey or CBD-infused food. Topical products are absorbed through the skin, so products can include CBD lotion, massage oils, salves, creams, and transdermal patches.

Typically, inhalation is the fastest route to absorb CBD and ingestion is the slowest. However, all four ways are effective depending on your symptom and dosage.

Where does CBD come from?

CBD is manufactured in a variety of ways. It typically goes through an extraction process.

There are three main ways to extract CBD from the cannabis plant:

  1. Carbon dioxide (CO2) extraction: This method uses CO2 to separate CBD oil from the cannabis plant. It is a popular extraction method for CBD products and is capable of successfully producing a high concentration of CBD.
  2. Steam distillation: With this method, steam helps separate the oil from the plant material. It is a popular method for extracting essential plant oils, but it is not as effective as the CO2 method.
  3. Solvent extraction: Although this method is effective if solvents are left behind, the process does pose a potential health risk. Solvent extraction can also affect the flavor of the extract.
  4. Lipid extraction: This process is gaining popularity, as some companies are now trying to avoid CO2 and solvents. After extraction, the resulting CBD oil is considered full-spectrum. Hemp-sourced CBD has a THC concentration of 0.3% or less. The extract must go through a cooling and purification process to obtain a CBD isolate product. Further processing leaves behind a crystalline isolate, or CBD crystals.

Is CBD legal?

Regulation for CBD depends on the state; however, many states follow the federal guidelines. Due to the Farm Bill that was passed in 2018, CBD oil that follows the 2018 Farm Bill’s established regulations can be bought, sold, and used within all 50 states.

However, it’s important to note this is only true when CBD oil contains no more than 0.3% THC content. Anything above this number is deemed illegal and will not be recognized by the FDA as a legitimate CBD product. To ensure quality and precision a company must have the following verification processes in place:

  1. Source of CBD product
  2. Adherence to FDA guidelines
  3. General quality control protocols
  4. Third-party tested certificates of analysis

The source of the CBD products is very important. Is the source marijuana- or hemp-based? Does it adhere to FDA guidelines for CBD product development, which include having a facility, consistent measuring, and testing metrics? Is there quality control to ensure sanitizing equipment and to make sure no contaminants are found in the batches created? A third-party tested certificate of analysis is a very important verification if a third-party is testing each product to make sure that each product meets regulations and to ensure no contaminants are found.

CBD for Medical Use

Ashley Glode, PharmD, BCOP, Associate Professor at the University of Colorado Skaggs School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Science provided Fight CRC with a medical perspective for CBD and medical cannabis.

Dr. Glode’s clinical practice site is the Phase I/GI/Head and Neck/Sarcoma Multidisciplinary Clinic at the University of Colorado Cancer Center, Colorado’s only National Cancer Institute designated cancer center.

Her clinical, research, and scholarship interests include supportive care interventions to maximize treatment dose intensity while minimizing toxicities and improve patient quality of life, and evaluate the use of integrative therapies, dietary supplements, and cannabis in cancer patients.

Is CBD or Medical Cannabis approved by the FDA as a treatment for cancer patients?

Not at this time. CBD, or Epidiolex, was FDA approved July 31, 2020 for the treatment of certain types of seizure disorders. The THC-based product of dronabinol (Marinol) is FDA approved for anorexia in patients with AIDS and chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting.

How can someone keep track of important considerations, such as dosage and potency, when there are so many cannabis products available now?

It is very important for patients to understand the label on their specific product and know the dosage of the product they are ingesting. It is important for patients to review this information with the staff at the store where the product is being purchased.

The components we know most about are THC and CBD. Products may be more predominantly THC or CBD, or be more of a 1:1 blend. THC and CBD exert different effects in the body; therefore, a patient may want a predominantly CBD- or THC-based product based on the indication. I recommend patients keep a journal of what they took and when, what their goal was (such as a decrease in pain from a 7 to a 4, resolution of nausea so they may eat a meal, etc.), if they achieved that goal, and any side effects they may have experienced. This helps guide any adjustments that need to be made to products or dosage that is used.

How can a patient effectively prepare to discuss therapeutic cannabis use with their care team?

A patient should be open and honest about what they have tried, if anything at all; what research they have done; and what their goal(s) of use are. It is important for their providers to understand where they are in their cannabis journey to make the best recommendation.

We try to weigh the risks and benefits with the limited information we have on potential drug interactions and safety concerns to do what is best for each patient. Each cannabinoid product is different in what it contains and patients may experience different effects.

Ultimately, we as the patient’s care team are learning too since there are limited studies with the products patients are using. Patients should bring us with them on their journeys and share their experiences with us.

What Patients are Saying

“I use CBD or delta 8 (another cannabis compound) daily since North Carolina has legalized medical marijuana.”

JJ Singleton, stage IV CRC survivor

“I use a dermal patch after chemo to help with nausea and appetite. I have some cream that I use on my temples to help with sleep. Both are CBD and THC 1:1”

Tim McDonald, stage IV CRC survivor

“After my 6 1/2 hour surgery I couldn’t sleep for days. I finally got some vape CBD and it really was helpful! FYI, vaping in the hospital is frowned upon!”

Jay Overy, stage II rectal cancer survivor

“I use CBD for anxiety.”

Mandi Griffin, stage III CRC survivor

“I did use it for anxiety but my body got too used to it, so now I’m on anxiety meds. So my experience wasn’t as good.”

Courtney Maurer, stage III CRC survivor

Additional Resources

Check out the additional resources and community stories we have around the use of cannabis and other alternative medicines. Remember to talk to your doctor about the complementary or alternative therapies you are considering before trying them so you can discuss how they may interact with your current treatment course. When you have all of the information, you can make an informed decision about what’s right for you!

Identification of Synergistic Interaction Between Cannabis-Derived Compounds for Cytotoxic Activity in Colorectal Cancer Cell Lines and Colon Polyps That Induces Apoptosis-Related Cell Death and Distinct Gene Expression

1 Agricultural Research Organization, Volcani Center, Bet Dagan, Israel.

Moran Mazuz

1 Agricultural Research Organization, Volcani Center, Bet Dagan, Israel.

Dvory Namdar

1 Agricultural Research Organization, Volcani Center, Bet Dagan, Israel.

Michal Shik

1 Agricultural Research Organization, Volcani Center, Bet Dagan, Israel.

2 The Mina and Everard Goodman Faculty of Life Sciences, Bar-Ilan University, Ramat Gan, Israel.

Diana Namintzer

1 Agricultural Research Organization, Volcani Center, Bet Dagan, Israel.

2 The Mina and Everard Goodman Faculty of Life Sciences, Bar-Ilan University, Ramat Gan, Israel.

Ajjampura C. Vinayaka

1 Agricultural Research Organization, Volcani Center, Bet Dagan, Israel.

Aurel Ion

1 Agricultural Research Organization, Volcani Center, Bet Dagan, Israel.

Adi Faigenboim

1 Agricultural Research Organization, Volcani Center, Bet Dagan, Israel.

Ahmad Nasser

3 The Interinstitutional Analytical Instrumentation Unit (IU), ARO, Volcani Center, Bet Dagan, Israel.

Ido Laish

4 Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Meir Medical Center, Kfar Saba, Israel.

Fred M. Konikoff

4 Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Meir Medical Center, Kfar Saba, Israel.

5 Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, Israel.

Hinanit Koltai

1 Agricultural Research Organization, Volcani Center, Bet Dagan, Israel.

3 The Interinstitutional Analytical Instrumentation Unit (IU), ARO, Volcani Center, Bet Dagan, Israel.

* Address correspondence to: Hinanit Koltai, PhD, Agricultural Research Organization, Volcani Center, Bet Dagan 7528809, Israel, E-mail: [email protected]

This Open Access article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Associated Data

Abstract

Introduction: Colorectal cancer remains the third most common cancer diagnosis and fourth leading cause of cancer-related mortality worldwide. Purified cannabinoids have been reported to prevent proliferation, metastasis, and induce apoptosis in a variety of cancer cell types. However, the active compounds from Cannabis sativa flowers and their interactions remain elusive.

Research Aim: This study was aimed to specify the cytotoxic effect of C. sativa-derived extracts on colon cancer cells and adenomatous polyps by identification of active compound(s) and characterization of their interaction.

Materials and Methods: Ethanol extracts of C. sativa were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography and gas chromatograph/mass spectrometry and their cytotoxic activity was determined using alamarBlue-based assay (Resazurin) and tetrazolium dye-based assay (XTT) on cancer and normal colon cell lines and on dysplastic adenomatous polyp cells. Annexin V Assay and fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) were used to determine apoptosis and cell cycle, and RNA sequencing was used to determine gene expression.

Results: The unheated cannabis extracts (C2F), fraction 7 (F7), and fraction 3 (F3) had cytotoxic activity on colon cancer cells, but reduced activity on normal colon cell lines. Moreover, synergistic interaction was found between F7 and F3 and the latter contains mainly cannabigerolic acid. The F7 and F7+F3 cytotoxic activity involved cell apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in S or G0/G1 phases, respectively. RNA profiling identified 2283 differentially expressed genes in F7+F3 treatment, among them genes related to the Wnt signaling pathway and apoptosis-related genes. Moreover, F7, F3, and F7+F3 treatments induced cell death of polyp cells.

Conclusions: C. sativa compounds interact synergistically for cytotoxic activity against colon cancer cells and induce cell cycle arrest, apoptotic cell death, and distinct gene expression. F3, F7, and F7+F3 are also active on adenomatous polyps, suggesting possible future therapeutic value.

Introduction

Although there has been some reduction in mortality caused by colorectal cancer (CRC) due to advances in screening and preventive colonoscopies, it remains the third most common cancer diagnosis and fourth leading cause of cancer-related mortality worldwide. 1 CRC is a heterogeneous disease that differs in clinical presentation, molecular characteristics, and prognosis. 2 A series of histopathological and molecular changes lead the normal colonic epithelial cells to form aberrant crypt foci (ACF) and polyps that can further develop into CRC. 3 As well, adenomatous polyps are recognized precursors of CRC. 4,5 In addition to polypectomies, chemoprevention with natural or synthetic agents is another cornerstone of primary prophylactic intervention. Because the natural history of CRC is protracted, clinical trials have concentrated on preventing adenomas, which represent a form of intraepithelial neoplasia and are the precursors to carcinoma.

Cannabis sativa contains more than 500 constituents, among them more than a hundred terpenophenolic compounds termed phytocannabinoids. 6 An increasing number of studies have shown that phytocannabinoids can prevent proliferation, metastasis, and angiogenesis, and induce apoptosis in a variety of cancer cell types, including breast, lung, prostate, skin, intestine, glioma, and others. 7 This is due to their ability to regulate signaling pathways critical for cell growth and survival. 7 Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) treatment induced apoptosis in a CB1-dependent way in CRC cells and inhibited various survival signaling cascades while activating the proapoptotic BCL-2 family member BAD. 8 Cannabidiol (CBD) reduced cell proliferation in colorectal carcinoma cell lines. In an animal model, it reduced ACF (preneoplastic lesions), polyps, and tumor formation and counteracted colon cancer-induced changes in gene expression. 9 A CBD-rich cannabis extract also was shown to inhibit CRC cell proliferation and attenuate colon carcinogenesis. 10 This activity involved both CB1 and CB2 receptor activation. 10 Cannabigerol (CBG) promoted apoptosis, stimulated reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, and reduced cell growth in CRC cells. In vivo, CBG inhibited the growth of chemically induced colon carcinogenesis and xenograft tumors. 11

Despite the accumulating knowledge on THC, CBD, and CBG, and receptor agonists or antagonists, only little is known on the other compounds in cannabis extracts that may have anticancer properties. Moreover, since advantages to the unrefined content of the inflorescence versus an isolated compound have been reported, 12,13 beneficial interactions between active compounds should be examined.

In this study, we identified the C. sativa extract fractions and compounds that have cytotoxic activity on CRC cells and adenomatous polyps and evidenced their synergistic interaction. The interacting compounds induced cell cycle arrest, apoptotic cell death, and distinct gene expression.

Materials and Methods

Extraction of Cannabis inflorescence

Fresh inflorescences of C. sativa CS12 var were harvested from plants. They were either taken immediately for extraction and frozen at −80°C, or heated for 2.5 h at 150°C before extraction. Fresh and heated Cannabis inflorescences (2 g) were pulverized with liquid nitrogen. Absolute ethanol was added to each tube containing the powder at sample-to-absolute ethanol ratio of 1:4 (w/v). The tubes were mixed thoroughly on a shaker for 30 min and then the extract was filtered through a filter paper. The filtrate was transferred to new tubes. The solvent was evaporated with a vacuum evaporator. The dried extract was resuspended in 1 mL of absolute methanol and filtered through a 0.45-μm syringe filter (Merck, Darmstadt, Germany). For the treatments, the resuspended extract was diluted accordingly for cell cultures and biopsies in all experiments.

Sample preparation

For high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), the dry extract was resuspended in 1 mL of methanol and filtered through a 0.45-μm syringe filter. The filtered extract was diluted 10 times with methanol and then separated by HPLC.

HPLC separation and quantification

Sample separation was carried out in an UltiMate 3000 HPLC system coupled with WPS-3000(T) Autosampler, HPG-3400 pump, and DAD-300 detector. The separation was performed on a Purospher RP-18 endcapped column (250 mm×4.6 mm I.D.; Merck KGaA, Darmstadt, Germany) with a guard column (4 mm×4 mm I.D.). Solvent gradients were formed by isocratic proportion with 15% solvent A (0.1% acetic acid in water) and 85% solvent B (methanol) at a flow rate of 1.5 mL/min for 35 min. The compound peaks were detected at 220, and 280 nm. The 220-nm peaks were taken for further processing. The extracts were fractionated into nine fractions according to the obtained chromatogram. Tetrahydrocannabinolic acid (THCA; LGC standards) and cannabigerolic acid (CBGA; LGC standards) were used as external calibration standards for quantification of cannabinoids, at suitable concentrations ranging 5–20 μg.

Gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometer analysis

Gas chromatography (GC)/mass spectrometry (MS) analyses were carried out using a HP7890 GC coupled to a HP6973 mass spectrometer with electron multiplier potential 2 kV, filament current 0.35 mA, electron energy 70 eV, and the spectra were recorded over the range m/z 40 to 400. An Agilent 7683 autosampler was used for sample introduction. Helium was used as a carrier gas at a constant flow of 1.1 mL s −1 . An isothermal hold at 50°C was kept for 2 min, followed by a heating gradient of 6°C min −1 to 300°C, with the final temperature held for 4 min. A 30 m, 0.25 mm I.D. 5% crosslinked phenylmethylsiloxane capillary column (HP-5MS) with a 0.25 μm film thickness was used for separation and the injection port temperature was 220°C. The MS interface temperature was 280°C. Peak assignments were performed with a spectral library (NIST 14.0) and compared with published and MS data obtained from the injection of standards (LGC standards). For identification and partial quantification, 5 μg of the most common cannabinoid standards, CBGA, cannabidiolic acid (CBDA), THCA, cannabichromene (CBC), and cannabinol (CBN), were dissolved in methanol and were injected to the GC/MS. Before GC/MS analysis, 200 μL of N,O-bis(trimethylsilyl)trifluoroacetamide (BSTFA; Sigma-Aldrich, St. Louis) containing 1% of trimethylchlorosilane (TMCS) was added to each completely dried extract and heated to 70°C for 20 min. One microliter of each sample was injected to the GC/MS using a 1:10 split ratio injection mode.

Cell cultures

HCT 116 (ATCC CCL-247), HT-29 (ATCC HTB-38), Caco-2 (ATCC HTB-37), and CCD-18Co (ATCC CRL-1459) colon cells were grown at 37°C in a humidified 5% CO2–95% air atmosphere. Cells were maintained in McCoy’s 5a Modified Medium (for HT-29 and HCT 116 cell lines), Dulbecco’s Modified Eagle’s Medium (DMEM; for Caco-2 cells) and Eagle’s Minimum Essential Medium (EMEM; for CCD-18Co cell line; all cell lines were kindly provided by Prof. Margel, Bar Ilan University, Israel).

Determination of extracts and compounds cytotoxic activity in cell lines

Resazurin (alamarBlue, R&D Systems, Minneapolis) was used to check the cytotoxic effect of extracts. For this, 10% Resazurin was added to each well of the treatments and incubated for 4 h at 37°C in a humidified 5% CO2–95% air atmosphere.

The relative fluorescence at the excitation/emission of 544/590 nm was measured. The percentage of live cells was calculated relative to the nontreated control after reducing the autofluorescence of alamarBlue without cells. Dose–effect curves of C. sativa ethanol extracts of fresh inflorescences (C2F), heated inflorescences (C2B) for HCT 116 colon cancer cells, and CCD-18Co colon healthy cells were determined. HCT 116 and CCD-18Co cells were seeded (10,000 per well) in triplicate in 100 μL growing media and incubated for 24 h at 37°C in a humidified 5% CO2–95% air atmosphere. Cells were treated with C2F, C2B at different dilutions (35–1600 μg/mL) along with 50 ng/mL tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α) for 16 h. Afterward, the viability of the cells was determined with alamarBlue. GraphPad Prism was employed to produce a dose–response curve and IC50 doses of C2F and C2B.

XTT viability assay

Cells were seeded into a 96-well plates at a concentration of 10,000 cells per well in triplicate in normal growing media. The following day, the media were replaced with normal growing media containing plant extracts/fractions, standards (CBGA and THCA), or media only for control (as mentioned in each experiment). Cells were incubated for 48 h, after which XTT (2,3,-bis(2-methoxy-4-nitro-5-sulfophenyl)-5-[(phenylamino)-carbonyl]-2H-tetrazolium inner salt) reduction was used to quantify viability according to the manufacturer’s instruction (BI, Kibbutz Beit-Haemek, Israel). Cells were incubated with XTT reagent for 2 h at 37°C in a humidified 5% CO2–95% air atmosphere. Absorbance was recorded by a photometer, SPEKTRA Fluor Plus (Tecan, Salzburg, Austria), at 490 nm with 650 nm of reference wavelength. Cell survival was estimated from the equation: % cell survival=100×(At − Ac)(treatment)/(At − Ac)(control); At and Ac are the absorbencies (490 nm) of the XTT colorimetric reaction (BI) in treated and control cultures, respectively, minus nonspecific absorption that was measured at 650 nm. Absorbance of medium alone was also deducted from specific readings.

Analysis of combined effects

To examine synergy between F3 and F7 cytotoxic activity, XTT assay was used on HCT 116 cells as described above. Different concentrations of F3 (3.7–80.0 μg/mL), with and without the IC50 dose of F7 (20 μg/mL), or different concentrations of F7 (7.9–63.0 μg/mL) with and without the IC50 dose of F3 (36 μg/mL) were used to treat the cells for 48 h. Next, the cells were incubated with XTT reagent for 2 h as described above. For examination of synergy between standards, different concentrations of THCA (4.0–50.0 μg/mL) with and without CBGA (28 μg/mL), or different concentrations of CBGA (6.7–53.3 μg/mL) with and without THCA (13.14 μg/mL) were used. The range of concentrations for examination of synergy on cell viability for the THCA or CBGA standards was determined based on quantification of THCA in F7 or CBGA in F3 using HPLC (as described above). Drug synergy was determined by Bliss independence drug interaction model, 14 which is defined by the following equation:

where (Exy) is the additive effect of the drugs x and y as predicted by their individual effects (Ex and Ey). For the calculation purposes in this article, the anticancer effect of the drug was defined as complementary to the obtained results (1−Exy). In case the observed value of Exy is greater than the calculated Exy value, the combination treatment is considered antagonistic. If the observed value is less than the calculated one, then the combination treatment is considered synergistic. If both values are equal, the combination treatment is considered additive (independent).

Drug synergy was also determined by combination index (CI) methods, derived from the median-effect principle. 15 Data obtained from the growth inhibitory experiments were used to perform these analyses. Combination data points that fall on the line represent an additive drug–drug interaction, whereas data points that fall below or above the line represent synergism or antagonism, respectively. The CI method is a mathematical and quantitative representation of a two-drug pharmacologic interaction. Using data from the growth inhibitory experiments, CI value was calculated using CompuSyn software (ComboSyn, Inc.) as described in the equation below

CA,x and CB,x are the concentrations of drug A and drug B used in combination to achieve percentage of drug effect. ICx,A and ICx,B are the concentrations for single agents to achieve the same effect. CI values are generated over a range of fraction affected levels from 0.25 to 0.90 (25%–90% growth inhibition). A CI of 1 indicates an additive effect between two drugs, whereas a CI 1 indicates synergism or antagonism, respectively.

Annexin V assay

Apoptosis was assessed using the MEBCYTO Apoptosis Kit with Annexin V-FITC and Propidium Iodide (PI) (MBL, Enco, 4700). Staining was done according to the manufacturer’s instructions. In brief, cells were seeded in 6-well plate culture dishes, at density of 1×10 6 cells per well in McCoy’s 5a Modified Medium. The following day, the medium was replaced with medium containing IC-50 dose of F7 (20 μg/mL), F3 (35 μg/mL) and combination of F7 and F3 along with TNF-α (50 ng/mL) and incubated for 24 and 48 h at 37°C in a humidified 5% CO2–95% air atmosphere. After incubation, cells were harvested and collected separately. Then tubes were centrifuged for 10 min at 900 g relative centrifugal force (RCF) and cell pellets were resuspended and washed twice with 1 mL of phosphate-buffered saline (PBS). The cells in each sample were counted and if necessary, the number of cells was adjusted to a concentration of 2×10 5 cells in 85 μL of Annexin binding buffer. Cells were stained using 10 μL of Annexin V-FITC solution and 5 μL of PI working solution followed by incubation in darkness at room temperature for 15 min. Then 400 μL of Annexin V binding buffer was added to each tube and flow cytometry was performed using GALLIOS flow cytometer (fluorescence-activated cell sorting [FACS]). Cells were considered to be apoptotic if they were Annexin V+/PI- (early apoptotic) and Annexin V+/PI+ (late apoptotic). Live cells were Annexin V-/PI- and Annexin V-/PI+ are the necrosis.

Cell cycle analysis

Cells were seeded in 6-well plate culture dishes at a density of 1×10 6 cells per well. After 24 h of seeding, the cell culture media were replaced with starvation media and incubated for 24 h at 37°C in a humidified 5% CO2–95% air atmosphere. After 24 h of incubation, the cells were treated with F7 (20 μg/mL), F3 (36 μg/mL), F7 in combination with F3 and solvent control along with TNF-α (50 ng/mL) for another 24 h. Then the cells from each well were harvested and collected separately and centrifuged for 10 min at 900 g. The cell pellets were washed once with 1 mL of PBS and fixed with 70% cold ethanol at 4°C for 1 h. The fixed cells were then pelleted out and washed twice with 1 mL of PBS. The cell pellet was then stained by resuspending in 250 μL of PI solution (50 μg/mL) containing RNase A (100 μg/mL) for 15 min in darkness. Then 400 μL of PBS was added to each tube and the cells were analyzed using GALLIOS flow cytometer.

Culture of biopsies

Biopsies from polyps and healthy colonic tissue from the same patient were obtained from seven patients scheduled for colonoscopies deemed necessary by their physicians. The study was approved by our Institutional Ethics Committee (Helsinki approval no. 0121-16), and all patients gave their written informed consent before the colonoscopy. Biopsies taken during each colonoscopy were placed in tissue culture media and immediately transported to the laboratory. Upon receiving the biopsies, the PBS was replaced with Hank’s Balanced Salt Solution and the samples were centrifuged at 8000 rpm (5,939 g) for 1 min. The supernatant was then removed and the tissues were washed four times with Hank’s Balanced Salt Solution. After each wash, samples were centrifuged as described above. The tissues were placed in a small Petri dish and cut into 4–5 pieces with a clean scalpel. The pieces were then placed on Millicell hydrophilic PTFE tissue-culture inserts (30 mm, 0.4 μm; Millipore). The inserts were placed in 6-well plastic tissue culture dishes (Costar 3506) along with 1.5 mL of tissue culture medium (DMEM supplemented with 10% v/v heat-inactivated fetal calf serum, 100 U/mL penicillin, 100 μg/mL streptomycin, 50 μg/mL leupeptin, 1 mM PMSF, and 50 μg/mL soybean trypsin inhibitor). This treatment was followed by treating the tissues with extracts, or leaving them untreated (control). The treatment medium was replaced with a medium containing C2F (1.25 mg/mL), F7 (at different concentrations: 100, 125, 250, or 400 μg/mL), F3 (75, 107, or 176 μg/mL), or F3+F7 (at the desired concentrations) and incubated overnight at 37°C in a humidified 5% CO2–95% air atmosphere.

Cell separation and Resazurin for biopsies

After 16 h, the treated and untreated tissues from the above section were taken into a tube and washed twice with PBS. Then the tissues were transferred into a Petri dish and chopped into very fine pieces using a surgical scalpel. The finely chopped pieces were transferred into tubes and 500 μL of R10 medium (RPMI 1640 supplemented with 10% FBS, 10 mM HEPES, 100 U/mL penicillin, 100 μg/mL streptomycin, and 50 μg/mL gentamicin) was added along with 20 IU/mL of DNase, 0.13 units/mL of dispase, and 1 mg/mL of collagenase 1A. Then the tissues were vortexed and incubated at 37°C for 1 h by vortexing every 15 minutes in between. Subsequently, the cell suspensions were pelleted at 950 g for 10 min and washed twice with PBS buffer. The cell suspension pellets were resuspended with 500 μL R10 medium and incubated at 37°C in a humidified 5% CO2–95% air atmosphere with 10% Resazurin for 4 h. The supernatant (100 μL from each well) was transferred to a 96-well plate and the relative fluorescence at the excitation/emission of 544/590 nm was measured. The percentage of live cells was calculated relative to the nontreated control after reducing the autofluorescence of alamarBlue without cells.

RNA sequencing and transcriptome analysis

For RNA preparation, cells were seeded into a 6-well plate at a concentration of 1,500,000 cell/mL per well. After 24 h of incubation at 37°C in a humidified 5% CO2–95% air atmosphere, cells were treated with F3 (36 μg/mL), F7 (20 μg/mL) and combination of F3 with F7 at these concentrations along with TNF-α (50 ng/mL) for 6 h. The cells were next harvested and total RNA was extracted using a TRI reagent (Sigma-Aldrich) according to the manufacturer’s protocol. The RNA was kept at −80°C until further analysis. Sequencing libraries were prepared using the INCPM mRNA Seq protocol. Sixty base pair single reads were sequenced on 1 lanes of an Illumina HiSeq.

For transcriptome analysis, the raw-reads were subjected to a filtering and cleaning procedure. The SortMeRNA tool was used to filter out rRNA. 16 Next, the FASTX Toolkit (http://hannonlab.cshl.edu/fastx_toolkit/index.html, version 0.0.13.2) was used to trim read-end nucleotides with quality scores

Clean reads were aligned to the human genome extracted from National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) (GRCh38; https://www..ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/genome/guide/human/) using Tophat2 software (v2.1). 17 Gene abundance estimation was performed using Cufflinks (v2.2) 18 combined with gene annotations from the NCBI. Heatmap visualization was performed using R Bioconductor. 19 Differential expression analysis was completed using the edgeR R package. 20 Genes that varied from the control more than twofold, with an adjusted p-value of no more than 0.05, were considered differentially expressed. 21 Venn diagrams were generated using the online tool at bioinformatics.psb.ugent.be/webtools/Venn/. Functional annotation of the significant expressed genes was extended using PANTHER (www.pantherdb.org/), based on gene ontology (GO) categories assigned to the human. The KEAGG database (www.genome.jp/kegg/) was used for pathways analysis using the KEAGG mapper tool (www.genome.jp/kegg/tool/map_pathway2.html).

Statistical analyses

Results are presented as mean±SE of replicate analyses and are either representative of or include at least two independent experiments. Mean of replicates was subjected to statistical analyses by Tukey–Kramer test (p≤0.05) using the JMP statistical package and considered significant when p≤0.05. Different letters above bars indicate statistically significant differences between mean by one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA). For dose–response assays, data points were connected by nonlinear regression lines of the sigmoidal dose–response relation. GraphPad Prism was employed to produce dose–response curve and IC50 doses. FlowJo software was used to analyze FACS data.

Results

C. sativa extracts from fresh inflorescences are active in reducing cell viability in colon cancer cell lines

Cytotoxic activity was determined as the level of cell viability in HCT 116 cells for absolute ethanol extracts of fresh (C2F) and heated (C2B) inflorescences of C. sativa (CS12 var.) following overnight treatment. Treatments with C2F or C2B were found to significantly reduce HCT 116 cancer cell viability with a similar level of activity ( Fig. 1A, B ). Moreover, although both ethanol extracts of C. sativa, C2F and C2B, have similar cytotoxic activity on colon cancer cells HCT 116 ( Fig. 1A, B ), the activity of C2F on CCD-18Co healthy colon cells was reduced. C2F had IC50 of 83.9 and 144.2 μg/mL on HCT 116 and CCD-18Co cell lines, respectively ( Fig. 1A, C ). On the other hand, C2B was more active on CCD-18Co than on HCT 116 cell lines, with IC50 of 54.63 and 84.1 μg/mL, respectively ( Fig. 1B, D ).

Dose–effect curves of Cannabis sativa ethanol extracts on the viability of HCT 116 colon cancer and CCD-18Co colon healthy cells. Dose–effect curves of C. sativa ethanol extracts of fresh inflorescences (C2F) (A; IC50=83.9±0.9 μg/mL, 95% confidence interval=83.2–84.7), heated inflorescences (C2B) (B; IC50=84.1±1.3 μg/mL, 95% confidence interval=83.1–85.2) on the viability of HCT 116 colon cancer cells, and C2F (C; IC50=144.2±1.1 μg/mL, 95% confidence interval=142.9–145.5), C2B (D; IC50=54.63±2.03 μg/mL, 95% confidence interval=53.09–56.17) on the viability of CCD-18Co colon healthy cells. Cell viability determined by alamarBlue fluorescence (Resazurin assay). HCT 116 and CCD-18Co cells were seeded (10,000 per well) in triplicate in 100 μL of growing media and incubated for 24 h at 37°C in a humidified 5% CO2-95% air atmosphere. Cells were treated with C2F, C2B at different dilutions along with 50 ng/mL TNF-α for 16 h. The cells were next incubated with alamarBlue for 4 h. Relative fluorescence at the excitation/emission of 544/590 nm was measured. Values were calculated as the percentage of live cells relative to the nontreated control (cells without TNF-α and treatments) after reducing the autofluorescence of alamarBlue without cells (n=3). For dose–response assays, data points were connected by nonlinear regression lines of the sigmoidal dose–response relation. GraphPad Prism was used to produce dose–response curve and IC50 doses for C2F and C2B. TNF, tumor necrosis factor.

We previously determined the chemical composition of C. sativa extracts from fresh and heated inflorescences. CBD, CBG, and THC were found in C2B, whereas in C2F the acidic forms of all the above compounds (i.e., CBDA, CBGA, THCA) were mostly present. 22

C2F and F7 have cytotoxic activity on human colon polyp biopsies

Adenomatous polyps are the primary premalignant precursors of CRC. Hence, to examine a possibility for a therapeutic or preventive potential of the extracts, we studied biopsies of adenomatous polyps and healthy tissue from patients scheduled for colonoscopy. Biopsy tissues of polyps and normal colon tissue of the same patient were exposed to C2F and F7 for 16 h followed by cell separation and Resazurin assay to determine tissue cell viability. Both C2F and F7 treatments significantly reduced cell viability of both polyp and healthy tissues ( Table 1 ).

Table 1.

Cannabis sativa C2F and F7 Cytotoxic Activity on Human Colon Polyp and Healthy Colon Tissue

Sample Treatment % Living cells Statistics
Healthy NT+MeOH 100 A
C2F (1.25 mg/mL) 18.41 B
F7 (0.4 mg/mL) 18.43 B
Polyp NT+MeOH 100 a
C2F (1.25 mg/mL) 7.81 b
F7 (0.4 mg/mL) 13.30 b

Cytotoxic activity was calculated as % of living cells from control of tissue treated with methanol only (NT+MeOH). Healthy biopsy of normal tissue, n=3; polyp biopsy of adenomatous polyp, n=3.

F7 interaction with other C. sativa cannabis fractions induces cytotoxic activity

C2F is as active as C2B on cancer cells, but is less active on normal cell lines; therefore, C2F was further analyzed for cytotoxic activity. Previously, we showed that the HPLC fraction 7 of C2F F7 (that contains mainly THCA) has only moderate cytotoxic activity against HCT 116. However, the combination of F7 with the other C2F fractions led to a marked increase in cytotoxic activity. 22 In this case, the interaction between F7 and the other C. sativa C2F fractions was further examined for each fraction separately.

Forty-eight hour treatment with F7 led to only a moderate effect on cell viability, whereas combinations of F7 with F2 or F3 was found to have increased cytotoxic activity ( Fig. 2A ). Only combination of F7 and F3 (in concentrations found in C2F) resulted with increased cytotoxic activity despite the low (F3) to moderate (F7) activity of each ( Fig. 2B ). Both F7 and F7+F3 treatments were cytotoxic to HT-29 and Caco-2 cell lines (Supplementary Fig. S1). As expected, F7+F2 or F7+F3 were much less potent on the normal CCD-18Co cell line (Supplementary Fig. S2).

Effect of Cannabis sativa C2F and HPLC fractions (F1–F9) in different combinations on HCT 116 cell viability. (A) Determination of HCT 116 cell viability using XTT assay as a function of live cell number. Cells were seeded and treated with C. sativa ethanol extracts (C2F) F1–F9, excluding F7 (HPLC fractions of C2F) and F1–F9, including F7 (HPLC fractions of C2F) at the IC50 dose of C2F crude (58 μg/mL), and F1–F9 diluted as C2F crude along with 50 ng/mL of TNF-α for 48 h. The cells were then incubated with XTT reagent for 2 h. Absorbance was recorded at 490 nm with 650 nm of reference wavelength. Values were calculated as the percentage of live cells relative to the nontreated (cells without TNF-α and treatments) control after reducing the absorbance without cells. (B) Determination of synergism of C2F Fraction 7 (F7) in combination with Fraction 2 (F2) and Fraction 3 (F3) on HCT 116 cell viability using XTT assay as a function of live cell number. Cells were seeded and treated with IC50 doses of F2 (7 μg/mL), F3 (36 μg/mL), F7 (20 μg/mL), the combinations of F2+F3, F7+F2, and F7+F3, along with 50 ng/mL of TNF-α for 48 h. Subsequently, the cells were incubated with XTT reagent for 2 h. Absorbance was recorded at 490 nm with 650 nm of reference wavelength. Values were calculated as the percentage of live cells relative to the nontreated control (cells without TNF-α and treatments) after reducing the absorbance without cells. Error bars indicate ±SE (n=3). Levels with different letters are significantly different from all combinations of pairs by Tukey–Kramer HSD. HPLC, high-performance liquid chromatography; HSD, honest significant difference.

Synergistic interaction of C. sativa fractions F7+F3 and F3 chemical composition

To determine whether the interaction of F7 and F3 is synergistic, that is, their combined activity is greater than the sum of their separate activities, the extent of activity in different combined concentrations of F7 and F3 was examined. The IC50 of F7 and F3 was determined to be 21.7 and 35.47 μg/mL, respectively (Supplementary Fig. S3). Subsequently, the partial effect of the drugs was calculated according to the Bliss Independence Model for each combination experiment. Four to six concentrations of each combination were examined. Synergistic interactions were found for the following combinations: F7 at its IC50 (21.7 μg/mL)+F3 at concentrations of 26.7, 20.0, and 13.3 μg/mL; and F3 at its IC50 (35.5 μg/mL)+F7 at concentrations of 15.8, 11.9, and 7.9 μg/mL ( Table 2 ). Since the Bliss Independence Model has high risks on false-positive results, 23 we have confirmed synergy between F7 and F3 by the CI method (Supplementary Table S1).

Table 2.

Synergism Calculation for Combinations of Fractions (F7 and F3)

A. F7 (20 μg/mL)
F3 (40.0 μg/mL) F3 (26.7 μg/mL) F3 (20 μg/mL) F3 (13.3 μg/mL) F3 (10 μg/mL) F3 (6.7 μg/mL)
Calculated value 22.64 50.42 52.13 52.45 52.52 54.49
Experimental value 32.21 38.94 43.31 51.86 59.61 69.24
B. F3 (36 μg/mL)
F7 (23.8 μg/mL) F7 (15.8 μg/mL) F7 (11.9 μg/mL) F7 (7.9 μg/mL)
Calculated value 29.95 49.84 58.67 58.06
Experimental value 32.16 33.96 38.85 41.97

(A) F7 in constant concentration of 20 μg/mL and F3 in different concentrations (6.7–40 μg/mL). Italicized values are concentrations, which showed synergism between fractions, as was determined by XTT assay on HCT 116 cells. (B) F3 in constant concentration of 36 μg/mL and F7 in different concentrations (7.9–23.8 μg/mL). Italicized values are concentrations, which showed synergism between fractions, as was determined by XTT assay on HCT 116 cells. The partial effect of the drugs was calculated according to the Bliss Independence Model for each combination experiment.

Furthermore, the combination of F3 at its IC50 with F7 resulted in approximately a threefold reduction in F3 IC50 (from 35.5 to 10.8 μg/mL). The combination of F7 at its IC50 with F3 resulted in an 11-fold reduction in F7 IC50 (from 21.7 to 1.9 μg/mL).

F3 was found to contain mainly CBGA (at 91.20%), CBN (3.67%), CBCA (3.53%), terpenes and terpene-ethanol compounds (0.72%), diterpenes (0.33%), and short free fatty acids (0.37%). The rest (0.18%) of compounds present in F3 are unidentified. Combined treatments with the purified compounds that constitute most of the fractions, that is, THCA in F7 and CBGA in F3, also resulted in synergistic interactions ( Table 3 ). We have confirmed synergy between THCA and CBGA by the CI method (Supplementary Table S2).

Table 3.

Synergism Calculation for Combinations of Standards (THCA and CBGA)

A. THCA (13.1 μg/mL)
CBGA (53.3 μg/mL) CBGA (40.0 μg/mL) CBGA (28.0 μg/mL) CBGA (20.0 μg/mL) CBGA (13.3 μg/mL) CBGA (6.7 μg/mL)
Calculated value 15.10 17.69 22.97 50.19 44.37 52.49
Experimental value 15.69 15.15 16.89 16.86 19.29 19.44
B. CBGA (28.0 μg/mL)
THCA (50.0 μg/mL) THCA (30.0 μg/mL) THCA (25.0 μg/mL) THCA (15.0 μg/mL) THCA (12.0 μg/mL) THCA (6.0 μg/mL) THCA (4.0 μg/mL)
Calculated value 10.53 20.43 21.25 44.66 47.60 70.59 69.18
Experimental value 16.56 14.40 16.90 23.25 28.69 29.68 42.44

(A) THCA in constant concentration of 13.1 μg/mL and CBGA in different concentrations (6.7–53.3 μg/mL). Italicized values are concentrations, which showed synergism between standards, as was determined by XTT assay on HCT 116 cells. (B) CBGA in constant concentration of 28 μg/mL and THCA in different concentrations (4.0–50.0 μg/mL). Italicized values are concentrations, which showed synergism between standards, as was determined by XTT assay on HCT 116 cells. The partial effect of the drugs was calculated according to the Bliss Independence Model for each combination experiment.

CBGA, cannabigerolic acid; THCA, tetrahydrocannabinolic acid.

Treatment of HCT 116 cells with C. sativa F7 and F7+F3 induced apoptotic cell death

Cell sorting for cell viability by FACS based on Alexa Fluor ® 488/Annexin V staining suggested that treatment for 48 h with F7 leads to a large proportion of cells that are in early or late apoptosis in comparison to controls (nontreated and TNF-α or Methanol [MeOH]-treated cells); for example, 8.5±0.4 or 30.1±4.1 for nontreated (NT) or F7 for late apoptosis, respectively. This proportion was even significantly higher in F7+F3-treated cells at 48 h (42.5±2.1 for late apoptosis), but treatment with F3 only did not lead to cell death ( Fig. 3 and Supplementary Fig. S4). At 24 h, apoptosis was not yet evident, but a slight and significant reduction of cell necrosis was found with the F7+F3 treatment (4.0±0.2 or 6.7±0.3 for F7+F3 or NT, respectively; Fig. 3 and Supplementary Fig. S4). These results suggest that F7 or F7+F3 treatments may act through induction of apoptosis.

Determination of apoptosis or necrosis as cytotoxic effect of F7, F3, or F7+F3 on HCT 116 cells. HCT 116 cells were treated with F7 (20 μg/mL), F3 (36 μg/mL), the combination of F7 with F3 and solvent control (methanol) along with TNF-α (50 ng/mL) for 24 h (A) or 48 h (B). The treated cells were harvested and analyzed in FACS following Annexin V-FITC and PI staining. Shown are the percentages of live, necrotic, early, and late apoptosis cells, analyzed from 10,000 events per treatment. FACS, fluorescence-activated cell sorting; PI, propidium iodide.

Treatment of HCT 116 cell line with C. sativa F7 or F7+F3 leads to S or G0/G1 cell cycle arrest, respectively

Cell sorting for cell cycle analysis by FACS based on PI staining suggested that treatment of the cells with F7+F3 led at 24 h to a marked increase in proportion of cells in G0/G1 phase in comparison to controls (NT and treated with TNF-α or MeOH; 43.2±0.0 or 73.2±1.7 for NT or F7+F3, respectively; Fig. 4 ) Treatment with F7 or F3 (F3 to a lesser extent) led to an increase in cells in S phase in comparison to controls ( Fig. 4 ).

Determination of stages of cell cycle arrest induced by F7, F3, or F7+F3 in HCT 116 cells. Starved HCT 116 cells were treated with F7 (20 μg/mL), F3 (36 μg/mL), the combination of F7 with F3 and solvent control (methanol) along with TNF-α (50 ng/mL) for 24 h. The treated cells were harvested, fixed, and analyzed in FACS following PI staining. The percentage of cells in Sub-G0, G0/G1, S, and G2/M phase were analyzed from 10,000 events per treatment.

F7 and F7+F3 have cytotoxic activity on human colon polyp biopsies

We next examined whether treatment with F7+F3 leads to an increase in the cytotoxic activity. We treated biopsy tissues of polyps and normal colon tissue from the same patient with reduced concentrations of F7, F3, or F7+F3 for 16 h followed by cell separation and Resazurin assay to determine tissue cell viability. Results varied between patients (n=4). For some, F7+F3 treatment was more effective than only F7 or F3, whereas for other patients, treatment with F7+F3 did not improve cytotoxicity in comparison to F7 or F3 only ( Table 4 ). In all cases but one (P4), treatments reduced polyp cell viability.

Table 4.

Cannabis sativa F7, F3, and F7+F3 Cytotoxic Activity on Human Colon Polyp and Healthy Colon Tissue

% Living cells
Sample P1 P2 P3 P4
Healthy tissue NT 100 A 100 A 100 A 100 B
F3 68.5 B 51.3 B 18.1 B 122.5 A
F7 54.4 C 25.2 C 4.9 C 97.3 C
F3+F7 55.4 BC 30.0 C 7.6 C 16.3 D
Polyp NT 100 a 100 a 100 a 100 c
F3 24.4 b 77.2 b 13.0 c 119.7 b
F7 15.4 c 63.4 bc 5.8 d 142.1 a
F3+F7 16.1 c 51.7 c 33.5 b 40.6 d

Cytotoxic activity was calculated as % of living cells from control of tissue treated with methanol only (NT+MeOH). Healthy biopsy of normal tissue (n=4); Polyp biopsy of adenomatous polyp (n=4). Percentages with different letters are significantly different from all combinations of pairs by Tukey HSD.

HSD, honest significant difference.

F7+F3 treatment induces distinct profile of gene expression in HCT 116 cells in comparison to F7 or F3 treatments

To identify genes differentially expressed in HCT 116 cells following treatment with C. sativa extract fractions, we performed RNA sequence analysis of HCT 116 cells 6 h post-treatment with F7, F3, or F7+F3. Sample correlation tests of RNA sequencing results suggested that those of the cells treated with F7 or F3 were clustered together, and those of control treatment clustered in a separate clade. However, RNA sequencing results of the treatment with F7+F3 at the concentrations shown above to act synergistically (i.e., 20 mg/mL for F7 and 36 μg/mL for F3) were clustered as an outgroup clade to the rest of the treatments ( Fig. 5A ).

Hierarchical clustering and Venn diagram of genes significantly differentially expressed in HCT 116 cells treated with F7, F3, or F7+F3. (A) Hierarchical clustering and Pearson correlations among the four conditions based on the gene expression (counts-per-million) followed by a log2 transform. Pearson correlations were calculated with the R software. (B) Venn diagrams illustrating the relationships between significantly differentially expressed genes in the three treatments against the control.

In the experiments, 2283 genes were found to be differentially expressed in cells treated with F7+F3, but not in cells treated with F7 or F3 only, compared with the control ( Fig. 5B ). Among the differentially expressed genes specific to the F7+F3 treatment to be discussed in this study are those involved with cell cycle G1/S phase transition, Wnt signaling pathway ( Fig. 6 ), and p53 and apoptosis signaling pathways ( Fig. 7 ). Gene expression data of those genes are listed in Supplementary Table S3.

Discussion

The present study provides evidence of a synergistic interaction of cytotoxic activity against colon cancer cells between two C. sativa extract fractions. F7 contains mainly THCA, 22 whereas F3 contains mainly CBGA but with additional minute amounts of other cannabinoids and terpenes. Several cell-based experiments have demonstrated that THCA has immunomodulatory, anti-inflammatory, neuroprotective, and antineoplastic activity. 24 CBGA was shown to have cytotoxic activity with IC50 of ∼40 μM, and essentially no synergic activity with CBD on acute lymphocytic leukemia. 25

However, synergism between plant-produced compounds was previously suggested because, in some cases, unrefined content of the flower extract, with its different extracted compounds, may have an advantage over the activity of an isolated compound. 12,13 Activity of the purified compounds comprising most of the fractions, that is, THCA in F7 and CBGA in F3, was synergistic as well. Nevertheless, in vivo experiment for validation of synergism would be necessary. Often only additive effects are observed in vivo. For example, cannabinoid CB1 antagonist and systemic cholecystokinin-1-induced (CCK1) receptor agonist had additive effects on CCK1-induced feeding suppression in rats, providing a framework for combined therapies. 26 Should this be the case for the interactions between the identified fractions and compounds in the present study, that is, additive rather than synergistic interaction in vivo, combined treatment could be a potential improvement over standard of care alone, particularly because of the low toxicity profile of cannabinoids.

The cytotoxic activity of F7 or F7+F3-involved cell apoptosis supports other studies, which suggest that cannabis-derived compounds induce apoptosis. 27,28 The evidence that F7 treatment led to S phase cell cycle arrest, whereas F7+F3 treatment led to G0/G1 arrest suggests that the synergistic interaction between F7+F3 leads to a different form of regulation on cell cycle progression, compared with only F7.

In the F7+F3 treatment, but not in the F7 treatment, the gene expression involved in G1/S transition was suppressed. The suppressed genes include cyclin E2 (geneID: 9134), by ∼10-fold. Cyclin E2 mRNA levels oscillate throughout the cell cycle and reach highest levels at the G1/S boundary; cyclin E2 is considered rate limiting for G1 progression. 29 Repression of cyclin E2 in the F7+F3 treatment may account for the G1 arrest. Interestingly, expression of cyclin E1 (geneID: 898) is also repressed by F7+F3 treatment (by a multiple of ∼2.5). Since cyclin E1 and cyclin E2 have some redundancy, suppression of both further explains the F7+F3 effect on G1 arrest. Moreover, overexpression of both cyclin E2 and cyclin E1 positively affects cell proliferation in some cancer cell lines. 30 Their reduction might again suggest that the F7+F3 treatment has anticancer properties.

The Wnt family of secreted glycoproteins induces signaling involved in processes of cell proliferation, differentiation, and oncogenesis, including colon cancer and melanoma; more than 90% of CRCs involve β-catenin-dependent WNT signal transduction. 31 F7+F3 treatment reduced most differentially expressed genes related to Wnt signaling pathways, including, by a factor of eight, Wnt16 (geneID: 51384) that was previously shown to be involved in leukemia. 32

Frizzled proteins are one of the major Wnt receptors 31 and their blockage is one target for anticancer drugs that interfere with canonical Wnt signaling. 33 The reduction of the expression of Frizzled class receptor 1 (geneID: 8321) by F7+F3 treatment may again implicate this treatment with the downregulation of the Wnt pathway. TCF7 expression is also significantly suppressed by the F7+F3 treatment. Wnt pathway activation leads to β-catenin accumulation and translocation to the nucleus, where under the control of T cell factor (TCF), it activates transcription of target genes. 31,34

TNF-α was suggested to be a prominent effector of colon cancer development. For example, it has been shown that TNF-α treatment in cultured cells resulted in increased chromosomal instability, gene mutations, and amplification 35 and that TNF-α is a prominent mediator of the initiation and progression of colitis-associated colon carcinogenesis. 36

Also, elevation in colonic TNF-α leads to protransformational alterations of key components of the Wnt signaling pathway. 37 Interestingly, in our study where cells are also treated with TNF-α, treatment with F7+F3 resulted in differential expression of genes related to the Wnt signaling, suggesting that this treatment may counteract TNF-α-induced CRC. Further studies are needed to examine this suggestion.

F7+F3 treatment induces several apoptosis-promoting genes, including the tumor suppressor p53 (geneID: 7157) transcription factor that causes cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. P53 signaling is often dysregulated in CRC; patients with the mutant p53 gene may be resistant to current therapies, leading to a poor prognosis. 38 TRAIL-R2 (TNFRSF10B; geneID: 8795) expression is also induced by F7+F3 treatment. It is a receptor for TRAIL to induce apoptosis, but not necroptosis in CRC cells. 39 However, FLIP (CFLAR; geneID: 8837), which inhibits TRAIL and caspase 8-dependent apoptosis 40 is upregulated by F7+F3 treatment as well.

PUMA (geneID: 27113, BCL2-binding component 3) BH3-only Bcl-2 family proteins is a p53 downstream target and acts as a mediator for different tumor suppression drugs that treat CRC. 41 PUMA expression is induced by F7+F3 cell treatment and may indicate the potential to increase PUMA-regulated treatment of CRC by treatment with the combination of F7+F3 and the relevant drugs. In this case and others, however, additional functional tests in vitro and in vivo are needed to fully confirm and characterize of the pathways activated by F7+F3 cell treatment.

The F7 and F7+F3 treatments showed only relatively low cytotoxic activity on a normal colon cell line but were active on adenomatous polyps. On the one hand, these extracts do not specifically target colon cancer cells that are a caveat for potential therapy. On the other, since nearly every carcinoma begins with an adenoma, 42 F3, F7, and F7+F3 could be potential candidates for chemopreventive agents to either prevent or suppress progression of neoplastic polyps. The ability of F7+F3 treatment to induce cell cycle arrest and cancer cell apoptosis further suggests that F7+F3 treatment may have therapeutic anticancer value.

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What is the best cbd oil for vaping

CBD Vape Oil UK: The 5 Best CBD Vape Products in the UK 2022

It feels like new CBD products enter the market every day, from CBD-infused beer to baking powder. Despite all the new and interesting CBD products out there, vape liquids remain a trusted favorite. And it’s easy to understand why.

Not only is vaping the quickest way to deliver the therapeutic benefits of CBD to our systems, but also vape oils come in a staggering variety of enticing flavors — sweet, fruity, minty, herby … the list goes on.

But, with so much available, how do you know which CBD vape e-liquid to choose? What do you look for to determine a quality CBD vape product? How can you find the safest and most effective CBD vape oil ? We’ve got some tips to help you know what to look for when you’re shopping for vape juice, and also some straightforward recommendations of our favorite vape liquid products for 2022. Let’s begin with the very best CBD vape oil UK products!

The Best CBD Vape Oil for 2022

There’s still plenty to say about how and why CBD works and how to select the best (and safest) CBD vape oils available in the UK. But, without further ado, let’s get to the best of the best — here are our picks for the 5 best UK CBD vape oil products to try in 2022!

The Top 5 CBD Vape Oils in the UK

4. Provacan CBD E-Liquid Unflavoured Vape Oil

5. ULU Peppermint E-Liquid

Meet the Winners: Top 5 CBD Vape Oils for 2022

Flavour and effectiveness are vital considerations in choosing a great CBD vape oil, and they carried great weight in our criteria for choosing the 5 best rated UK CBD vape oils. But, it’s important to remember some other crucial criteria when it comes to CBD products and to vape liquids.

Purity comes first and foremost in any CBD product, because the hemp plant (as we’ll see below) is excellent at absorbing toxins and pesticides in the soil where it grows. In addition, the methods used to extract the CBD from the hemp plant, and the thinning agents used in the creation of CBD vape liquid are of the utmost importance. Vegetable and propylene glycols are the agents considered to be of the highest quality, and they’re what we looked for in the products we selected — as well as the absence of addictive nicotine.

1. CBDfx Blue Raspberry CBD Vape Juice UK

Founded in the US in 2014, CBDfx UK quickly made a name for themselves in the CBD industry due to the purity and potency of their CBD products. Fortunately for us, they soon after expanded to the UK. CBDfx is a top choice for any CBD product — including CBD gummies, CBD tablets, CBD oils, CBD creams, and more — because they source organically grown, non-GMO hemp, use clean CO2 to extract their CBD, and formulate CBD products that both taste and work wonderfully.

We love their juice because it’s the perfect blend of 99% pure CBD isolate, plus the ideal 50/50 ratio of vegetable and propylene glycols. And they only use natural flavourings in their vape products, so you don’t have to worry about potentially harmful additives when you vape their liquids. The only problem we had, as you can see, was choosing our favourite flavour — as all five juice flavours are absolutely superb. The Blue Raspberry Vape Juice is particularly tasty and aromatic. The flavour of this delicious juice hovers somewhere between candy floss and a really good yogurt topping. Frankly, it was almost as enjoyable to stand for a moment in the vape cloud afterward as it was to vape the oil itself.

Use code “OBSERVER” for 25% off.

1a. CBDfx Wild Watermelon CBD Vape Juice UK

Honestly, you couldn’t go wrong with any of CBDfx’s juice products. The Strawberry Kiwi CBD Vape Juice , Spearmint Gum CBD Vape Juice , and Strawberry Milk CBD Vape Juice are all outstanding. But like the Blue Raspberry CBD Vape Juice mentioned above, the flavour profile of the Wild Watermelon CBD Juice just knocked us out.

And that’s really the best part of having a CBD isolate vape oil: there’s no harsh hemp plant taste lingering in the background. The natural flavouring is able to completely shine — making CBDfx Wild Watermelon Juice an absolute joy for vaping!

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3. CBDfx Pineapple Express CBD Terpene Vape Liquid

We’re sticking with CBDfx for one more liquid. Their Pineapple Express CBD Terpene Vape Liquid makes our list because of its unique taste and terpene-enhanced effectiveness. The flavour profile mirrors the classic cannabis strain, named after the legendary Hawaiian storm winds. Made with 99% pure CBD isolate and a 50/50 ratio of vegetable glycol (VG) and propylene glycol (PG), this is a very high-quality vape oil designed for a smooth and balanced experience and great results.

It’s worth mentioning that the three other “classic cannabis” flavours of vape liquid are also top-notch: Platinum Rose CBD Terpene Vape Liquid , OG Kush CBD Terpene Vape Liquid , and Gelato CBD Terpene Vape Liquid .

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4. Provacan CBD E-Liquid Unflavoured Vape Oil

If you want to avoid added flavours and scents altogether, we recommend Provacan CBD’s unflavoured vape oil. Like the CBDfx Platinum Rose CBD Liquid, this CBD oil has a boosted terpene profile. Provacan’s vape liquid is made at a smooth 80/20 VG/PG ratio and boasts all the cannabinoids, terpenes, and flavonoids that occur naturally in cannabis hemp.

5. ULU Peppermint E-Liquid

ULU sources their hemp from pesticide-free EU cultivators, and this peppermint CBD formula is as minty and fresh as a candy cane. This smooth-hitting liquid is made from CBD isolate at 5% CBD concentration, and ULU claims their juice delivers approximately 1.6mg of CBD per puff and nearly zero THC.

Why Vape CBD Oil?

Even with all the strict regulations and sideways glances that CBD vaping bumps up against, it’s still an incredibly popular way to incorporate CBD into our lifestyles. Why? Perhaps the primary reason is that vaping CBD is the fastest way to reap the calming wellness benefits of CBD. It’s these benefits that have made CBD among the most popular wellness supplements in the UK — and the reason why CBD can be found in everything from CBD gummies UK , CBD vape pens UK and other CBD vape oil products to CBD sleep oil and other CBD oil UK .

When you vape liquid CBD (vape juice), the CBD enters your bloodstream very quickly via your lungs. This means you don’t have to wait for the CBD to work its way through your digestive system and liver (as with a CBD edible). Depending on your body mass, metabolism and other bioavailability factors, vaped CBD can take effect within 2–5 minutes and last for 1–2 hours.

By comparison, a CBD tincture that you hold under your tongue will be absorbed by the sublingual membrane and take effect in roughly 15 minutes and last 4–6 hours.

CBD edibles take longer to kick in because, as mentioned, they must be digested and metabolised before they enter the bloodstream. That means CBD edibles (like CBD gummies) can take up to 45 minutes to take effect. The wait balances out with the length of time the CBD effects last, which falls in the 6–8 hour window.

So, even though the effects of vaped CBD don’t last as long as other methods of CBD delivery, they take effect far faster, providing near-immediate access to the soothing benefits CBD provides.

Beginning in 2021, a big breakthrough came in the UK when all CBD brands had to apply for novel food authorisation , meaning products are required to undergo an independent safety assessment. And this, as we’ll explore later in this article, is vital to ensuring your CBD vaping experience is as safe as possible.

How to Shop for CBD Vape Oil

Now that you’ve seen our picks, let’s talk a little about the criteria we used in selecting our vape liquid faves. With the info below, you can shop for CBD vape products with confidence.

CBD vape products are available pretty much everywhere now, from a high street store to petrol stations. How do you know what to look for? Here are our pro tips for selecting a safe and effective CBD vape oil.

Hemp vs. Marijuana: What’s the Difference?

It all begins with the plant. Tetrahydrocannabinol, or THC, is the psychoactive compound found in the cannabis plant that causes a high, and it’s the key to understanding what separates a legal CBD product from a regulated marijuana product. Legally speaking, there are two forms of cannabis plant — cannabis hemp (a.k.a. industrial hemp), and cannabis marijuana.

Cannabis marijuana contains a large amount of THC and causes a high.

Cannabis hemp is used for CBD products. Hemp contains only a tiny, non-intoxicating trace amount of THC (less than 0.3%). That’s the plant used for the CBD vape oils we’ve discussed today.

CBD, THC, and Other Cannabinoids

CBD and THC are both chemical compounds known as cannabinoidsnoopener”>cannabinoids . But, they’re not the only ones … not by far. Cannabis actually contains over a hundred cannabinoids, including CBG, CBC, and many others. Each of these compounds has a therapeutic application, and they all work well independently and in tandem with one another.

Full Spectrum CBD, Broad Spectrum CBD, and CBD Isolate

The CBD from cannabis hemp is extracted into three primary forms: full spectrum CBD , broad spectrum CBD, and CBD isolate.

CBD Isolate is, perhaps, the most popular form of CBD used in e-liquid CBD vape products. It is 99% pure CBD with all other cannabinoids, terpenes, flavonoids, and other compounds removed. This won’t induce the Entourage Effect — a synergistic effect in which all the different compounds work together to modify one another’s effects while also enhancing the overall experience. However, it does deliver the most straightforward form of CBD available. This is a preference for those who want to avoid all traces of THC. CBD isolate also allows the added flavours to shine, without the hemp taste that is unappealing to some. We do recommend that you make sure whatever flavours are used in your vape CBD oil are natural. Safety first!

Full spectrum CBD contains all of the cannabinoids that naturally occur in cannabis, including CBD and trace amounts of THC, as well as CBG, CBN, CBC, terpenes, and flavonoids. Many people prefer full spectrum CBD for its efficacy in creating the Entourage Effect. It’s important to note that pure full spectrum CBD contains more than the 0.2% trace amounts of CBD legally allowed in the U.K. For this reason, if you see a vape liquid in the UK labeled as “full spectrum CBD,” you should understand that it is either: 1) not actually full spectrum CBD, or 2) an illegal CBD product.

Broad spectrum CBD takes full spectrum CBD oil and filters out those remaining amounts of THC. The resultant oil still contains other cannabinoids, terpenes, and flavonoids, and still creates the Entourage Effect to a slightly lesser amount.

Pesticide-Free Plants

When shopping for a CBD vape liquid, the first thing to look for is how the hemp plant it comes from was grown. Cannabis is known as a phytoremediator — that means it cleans the soil it grows in of toxins or chemicals. Where do all these nasty bits go? Into the plant, of course. That includes pesticides, heavy metals, and other chemicals. Your CBD vaping liquid should come from organically grown, pesticide-free cannabis hemp. Otherwise, you’re going to vape straight into your lungs potentially dangerous chemicals, along with your CBD.

Clean Extraction

Cheap CBD brands often use unsafe methods for extracting CBD from the plant. These methods of extracting CBD can include dangerous chemicals, like acetone and butane. This can lead to products containing dangerous additives and chemicals. CO2 extraction (used by CBDfx and others) is considered by the CBD industry to be the cleanest (and most efficient) method of extraction.

Thinning Agents

To work well as a vaping product, extracted CBD oil is typically mixed with a thinning agent. This makes for a smoother, more enjoyable vaping experience. However, certain agents can release dangerous chemicals when heated for vapourisation. For instance, the agent polyethylene glycol 400 (PEG 400), often used in cheaper products, has been shown to release formaldehyde and acetaldehyde — both of which are carcinogens. The highest quality products will typically be made with a combination of vegetable and propylene glycols, usually in ratios ranging from 50/50 to 80/20.

Lab Reports

The most surefire way to know exactly what is in your CBD vape oil is through a report provided by an independent third-party lab. This will tell you the exact percentages of CBD and other cannabinoids in your vaping product, as well as any other chemicals that may be present.

Terpenes and Flavonoids

Cannabinoids like CBD, THC, and CBG are abundant in hemp, but they’re not the only impressive ingredients to be found. Terpenes and flavonoids are not exclusive to cannabis, but they occur in the plant in high amounts and they’re incredibly beneficial.

Terpenes give plants their scent. They’re particularly abundant in plants like cannabis, tea, herbs, and citrus fruits — really pungent plants. In addition to giving plants their unique smell, they possess a host of beneficial properties, from fighting inflammation to fighting anxiety.

You’re probably expecting us to say that flavonoids give plants their flavour, but they actually give plants their colour. They’re also phytonutrients, and can help our bodies fight off illness, soothe inflammation, and boost our overall health and wellness.

Additional Ingredients in Your Vaping Product

Some CBD vape products are formulated for a specific use, like helping with sleep or muscle recovery, or enhancing wellness with vitamins and minerals. This is more often found in edibles, tinctures, and topicals, but it’s important to note even here in our CBD vape oil information. While we believe CBD is an incredibly effective wellness product, natural supplements can help it work more effectively. Lavender and chamomile are popular healthy ingredients for sleep gummies, while superfoods , apple cider vinegar , and multivitamins are incredibly valuable for combining your CBD experience with important supplements and nutrients.

Vape Without the Cloud of Mystery

Now that you not only have a few handy CBD vape product recommendations, but also some solid guidance on how to find the best possible CBD vape oil, we hope you can shop with confidence and enjoy vaping CBD oil without the mystery and misinformation that surrounds not only vaping, but CBD in general.

You can rely on the vaping products we’ve recommended to deliver the kind of soothing, chill CBD experience you seek without the harsh chemicals and fillers you don’t. Pick up one today, and see for yourself!

Best CBD Vape Oil: Top Brands

CBD, or cannabidiol, now comes in a variety of different forms, including CBD oils, CBD gummies, pills, and even water soluble CBD powders. You can also use CBD vape oil like you would any other vape juice. Our guide to the best CBD vape oils will help you identify the top brands to consider and will provide important information about CBD, vaping, and wellness.

What is CBD Vape Oil?

CBD can be vaporized and inhaled. To that end, many companies offer CBD vaping products, sometimes referred to as CBD vape juice, CBD vape pens, or CBD vape cartridges. These products normally come as disposable or refillable cartridges for vape pens . The vape pen vaporizes the specially made CBD contained in the cartridge, which is then inhaled. It is the same principle behind e-cigarettes and THC vape products.

Vaporization is normally considered a potent way to ingest CBD and so it is not for everyone. Because the vapor is inhaled, the molecule enters the bloodstream much quicker, so vaping produces a fast and relatively intense feeling.

While CBD vape oil may be used as an aid to help you quit smoking, we do not recommend smoking or vaping CBD as your primary method of ingesting CBD because of the health concerns associated with smoking. For alternative methods of taking CBD, check out our oil tincture and gummy bears and edible reviews.

Note that new federal laws went into in effect starting April 2021 as part of the Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2021, that place new regulations and restrictions around the online sale and delivery of all vaping products. In order to purchase any vape product online, you will need to verify your age and use a shipping service that requires an adult signature upon delivery. As a result, several brands have discontinued their CBD vape pens or no longer sell them online.

Top CBD Vape Oil Products for 2021

Each product featured here has been independently selected by the writer. You can learn more about our review methodology here. If you make a purchase using the links included, we may earn commission.

  • Best Overall – CBDistillery CBD E-Liquid
  • Best for Relaxation – Botany Farms CBG Vape Cartridge

How We Chose the Best CBD Vape Oils

Here is a list of factors we consider when choosing and ranking our brand selection.

Hemp source – Hemp source is one of the most important parts of the CBD manufacturing process. We make sure to only pick companies that grow hemp according to the most up-to-date botanical and cultivation methods. We also make sure to choose companies that use organically grown, locally-sourced hemp.

Extraction process – There are three primary types of extraction for CBD products. The first involves crushing the leaves and stems and removing the residual mixture. Solvent extraction involves running the hemp plant through a solvent mixture (most of the time ethanol) then boiling away the solvent to leave the oil residue. The last common method is called supercritical CO2 extraction. Supercritical CO2 extraction is considered the gold standard when it comes to CBD production. As such, we try to find companies that use supercritical methods for their products.

Manufacturing standards – There are several third-party organizations that vet companies based on manufacturing standards and the quality/accuracy of their products. These agencies test company products to make sure that they are made properly and actually contain what they are advertised to contain. As such, we only choose products and companies that have readily accessible third-party lab reports ascertaining the quality of ingredients and production. Any company that does not provide this information for consumers is automatically excluded from consideration.

Extra ingredients – CBD products rarely contain just CBD and nothing else. Many contain a full spectrum of cannabinoids and other molecules such as terpenes. Some may contain delta-8 THC. We make sure that any companies we choose use all-natural ingredients and do not rely on any synthetic or artificial chemicals. We also look at the type and quality of alternative ingredients

Potency – Potency, or concentration, refers to the overall strength of the mixture. Potency is normally measured in milligrams per milliliter (mg/ml). Most of the time a product will list the potency on the label along with the quantity and volume of the product. Potency is very important because it determines the recommended dose that you should take.

Brand transparency – It is important when dealing with CBD companies that the brand is transparent about their products, methods, and supply chains. So, when looking for companies, we make sure only to pick those that have reliable and transparent business practices, product labelings, and company information/policies.

Customer reviews and testimonials – The last major factor we consider is customer reviews and testimonials. Customer reviews encompass more than just the quality of products. They also talk about how it is to interact with the company and the overall company experience. Customer reviews can also give insights in specific matters that general product descriptions cannot give. They also give a good indication of the public reputation of a company.

The Best CBD Vape Oils of 2021

​Best Overall: CBDistillery CBD E-Liquid

Why buy: We like this extra strength CBD E-Liquid from CBDistillery because it provides 1000 mg of broad spectrum CBD with no THC or nicotine. Available in flavors like mango, strawberry, mint, and grape, this CBD vape oil is also third-party lab tested for quality with a QR code right on the box so you can view the test results for yourself.

​Best for Relaxation: Botany Farms CBG Vape Cartridge

  • CBD – Full Spectrum (includes Delta-8 THC)
  • Strength – 35% CBD, 25% CBG, 9% Delta-8 THC, 7% CBN, 7% CBC per 1 gram
  • Flavor – Lemon Diesel

Why buy: This Botany Farms CBG vape cartridge offers a full spectrum blend of CBD and other cannabinoids, including delta-8 THC, for a calming and relaxing experience with a bright, citrusy flavor. Because it does contain full spectrum hemp extract and delta-8, we strongly recommend only using this product to relax in the evenings and that you do not drive after use.

The Research on CBD You Can Smoke

CBD has become an interesting object of study by scientists because of its potential therapeutic and medicinal properties. CBD may help support relief from certain health conditions, including:

  • Anxiety
  • Inflammation
  • Chronic pain
  • Joint pain

Out of all these effects, the potential pain reducing and anti-inflammatory properties of CBD are the most well-established. CBD has been shown to have anti-inflammatory properties and has also been shown to be to help with pain management in certain cases.

The exact mechanism of action of CBD is through the body’s endocannabinoid system. The endocannabinoid system (ECS) is a large network of cannabinoid receptors throughout the body’s brain and nervous tissue. Research has shown that the endocannabinoid system is involved in mediating several homeostatic processes in the body.

To be clear, CBD is not medicine and is not generally approved by the FDA for medical use. CBD is not intended to serve as a substitute or replacement for any approved medical treatment and CBD is not known to cure any diseases.

In fact, there are only 2 FDA-approved medicines that contain CBD as their active ingredient, both of which are meant to treat certain forms of epilepsy. Since CBD is not approved for medical use, you should always talk to your doctor first before using a CBD product.

How to Choose the Right Vape Juice

With any CBD vape juice or oil, it’s important to make sure that you choose a product that is safe and made using quality, natural ingredients. Make sure you consider these factors when shopping.

What to Look For

Here are the key things to look for when comparing CBD vape oil products:

Type of CBD: Always known the type of CBD contained in any CBD vape oil product, whether that’s full spectrum, broad spectrum, or CBD isolate.

Hemp Source: Look for brands that source their hemp from organic farms in the United States.

Lab Testing: The most important factor to consider is independent third-party lab testing. You should never purchase a CBD product that does not offer proof of independent testing.

Instructions: Some CBD vape cartridges will include specific instructions on how to to use them with your existing vape pen or device, as well as if they can be mixed with other e-liquids.

How to Read Labels

Take the time to read the label of any CBD vape juice product before you buy. Always look for the following information.

  • Strength – Check to see how much CBD is contained in the product so you know how much will be in each serving.
  • Other Ingredients – Make sure you know what other cannabinoids or ingredients are included in the vape, especially if you are concerned about THC.
  • Test Results – The best brands include links or QR codes to the certificates of analysis from the lab tests of their CBD. Use these to check the results for yourself.

Safety & Side Effects

CBD can cause a certain number of side effects, though most of them are mild.. The most common reported side effects of CBD are:

  • Dry mouth
  • Fatigue/lethargy
  • Indigestion
  • Changes in appetite
  • Upset stomach

The most commonly reported side effect is fatigue and tiredness. CBD can also interact with certain prescription medications, so be sure to consult with your doctor before using CBD if you take any prescription medicines.

It’s also important to note that vaping or smoking of any kind carries serious health risks. While vape oils may be used to aid in the cessation of smoking, it is not advised as the primary method of taking CBD.

Takeaway

You should always take the time to research any CBD product that you purchase, but this is especially important when it comes to CBD vape oils and CBD vape pens. You can also explore other CBD options including oil tinctures, gummies, capsules, and water soluble mixes in order to enjoy the potential benefits of CBD.

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Acceptance for cbd oil

CBD Oil Is Everywhere, But Is It Really Safe and Healthy?

Y ou might have seen it in your neighborhood health store, your local spa or your corner coffee shop. CBD, aka cannabidiol, is getting mixed into cocktails, lotions and drinks.

But what is CBD, exactly? Does it have real health benefits? Is it even safe?

To get a better understanding of the compound, TIME spoke to two scientists on the cutting edge of CBD research: Dr. Esther Blessing, an associate professor of psychiatry at New York University, and Margaret Haney, professor of neurobiology at Columbia University Medical Center and director of the university’s Marijuana Research Laboratory.

Blessing and Haney agree that the current evidence suggests that CBD shows promise for helping to treat some illnesses. In June 2018, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved the first cannabis-derived drug — Epidiolex, which contains purified CBD — to treat certain rare childhood seizure syndromes. However, much of the research on CBD is only in very early stages, and scientists still don’t know a lot about it — including whether it has negative long-term effects.

On top of that, the CBD that is available in shops and online is not regulated by the government — which means it might contain other ingredients, or not even any CBD at all, Blessing says. Haney warns that much of the CBD on the market could be “snake oil.”

Here’s what you need to know about CBD.

How is CBD different from marijuana?

The drug marijuana, which is also known as weed or pot, is the leaves and flowers of the cannabis plant.

Cannabidiol is a naturally occurring compound that is found in cannabis plants. CBD can be extracted from the same plant as marijuana, or from hemp — another cannabis plant that is now legal in the United States.

Hemp has very low levels of another cannabis compound, tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) — the main psychoactive compound in marijuana. Evidence suggests that THC — not CBD — causes the symptoms people associate with getting high on marijuana, Blessing says. Unlike marijuana, which the CDC argues is addictive, CBD also doesn’t seem to be, according to the World Health Organization.

What is CBD oil?

In theory, CBD oil should consist of two main ingredients: the compound cannabidiol dissolved in an oil made from hemp seeds or coconut.

However, all CBD products on the market (besides Epidiolex) are almost completely unregulated. Products might not contain the amount of CBD that is advertised, and might even contain undesirable ingredients, such as THC, Haney says.

Patients who take CBD without knowing what they are getting are “just throwing their money away,” Haney says.

“It’s unfortunate that there aren’t many options for consumers to ensure that CBD they buy is safe – or even has any CBD in it,” Blessing says.

Does CBD oil have health benefits?

Companies that market CBD oil make a wide variety of claims about it. However, scientists and doctors emphasize that the research on CBD is limited, and has been slowed in the United States by federal restrictions.

Scientists say that there’s a growing body of evidence that CBD can treat other illnesses besides seizure syndromes, but they emphasize that scientific research is in its very early stages.

CBD is in early clinical trials for treating post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and schizophrenia, says Blessing, who is currently studying whether CBD could be used to treat PTSD in people with alcohol use disorder.

Blessing says that CBD shows a lot of promise, and that she is frustrated that the federal government makes it so difficult for scientists to obtain different strains of CBD. “It’s my opinion that the government should step up, so we can do clinical trials and get this out to people,” Blessing says.

Blessing says that she first became interested in CBD because she saw it being used in early trials to treat people with psychosis. She explains that unlike FDA-approved antipsychotic medications, which can cause weight gain and other side effects, CBD doesn’t seem to have any major side effects.

Other evidence suggests that CBD could also be used to treat anxiety, but it has been tested only in animals and in very early clinical trials on humans.

Haney says she believes that CBD shows promise to help treat the cognitive symptoms associated with HIV and Alzheimer’s, and to treat neuropathic pain (pain from damage to the nervous system, which can be caused by diabetes, chemotherapy or HIV). Research is ongoing in all of these areas.

However, Haney emphasizes that a lot still isn’t known about CBD — including the effects of long-term use, how it acts on the brain or its impact on brain development.

Why do people use CBD products?

Scientists are looking into a wide range of uses for CBD. However, Haney and Blessing say that except for the medicine Epidiolex, there’s only been a limited amount of research to suggest that CBD can be used to treat other illnesses.

Although most scientists agree that a lot more research is needed before CBD can be prescribed to patients, for some people who are selling CBD, personal experience and word of mouth is enough to convince them that it is effective.

Lisa Richards of Denver, Colorado is a longtime yoga teacher and the co-founder of L’eela CBD Body Care, which sells CBD capsules and serums. Richards says that her own experience with CBD has convinced her that it is effective.

“I’m a believer, obviously. I can say, absolutely, for myself this works,” Richards says. “I have arthritis in my knee. If I don’t take CBD, I’m going to feel it come back in a day or two.”

Richards says that she prefers to use products in which she can actually identify the ingredients.

“In my mind, simpler is better. If I can’t pronounce it, if I can’t tell what it is, I stay away from it,” Richards says.

Haney, however, warns that consumers should be careful about the personal testimonies and anecdotes companies offer. “It’s important to be aware of the enormous placebo effect,” says Haney. The claims marketers make are “not based on science.”

Is CBD legal?

CBD is in a legal grey area. CBD that is extracted from hemp (which must have an extremely low level of THC) has only been legal nationwide since the Agriculture Improvement Act — better known as the Farm Act — was passed in December 2018.

CBD that is extracted from other cannabis plants is still illegal on the federal level, but may be legal under state law.

However, businesses can run into trouble when they make false claims about the health benefits of CBD, or when they add CBD to food.

In recent months, both cities and states have moved to control how CBD is sold. Maine and New York City have moved to crack down on edible products containing CBD. New York’s health department confirmed to the New York Times that it has started ordering restaurants to stop selling CBD-laced food because it has not been “deemed safe as a food additive.”

Companies also can’t legally make unproven health claims about CBD.

Blessing says she’s concerned that some people buying unregulated CBD have a “real medical need” and won’t seek proven methods of treatment.

“They might be taken for a ride by people who are marketing unregulated forms of CBD and not get the treatment they need,” Blessing said.

What are the risks of using CBD oil?

The current evidence suggests that the active ingredient in CBD oil is safe, says Blessing, although it could have serious interactions if it is taken with other medications.

Haney says that more research is needed to determine whether there are long-term effects, or if it affects brain development.

“There’s nothing damning; we really just don’t know,” Haney says.

However, Blessing and Haney emphasize that products that are being sold as CBD are almost completely unregulated. Some products might even contain THC, which can interfere with medications and cause unwitting users to get high.

Should you try CBD?

While Blessing and Haney both say that CBD shows a lot of promise, they agree that the CBD products on the market (excluding the seizure drug Epidiolex) are suspect.

Blessing says that anyone considering trying unregulated CBD should definitely talk it over with a doctor, and be as well informed about it as possible.

“Take the time to get the best information you can. It’s a complex subject. The details really matter,” said Blessing.

Blessing emphasizes that there are many factors that can impact CBD’s effects. Too little CBD may have no effect at all. Additionally, the way it’s administered — as a cream, oil, pill or tab under the tongue — could weaken its effects.

Available CBD products meant to be taken orally (besides Epidiolex) generally have poor “bioavailability,” says Blessing, “so only a small fraction of CBD you swallow makes it into your bloodstream.”

Haney warns that people should approach companies that sell CBD with skepticism.

“Because it’s not regulated, nobody is really checking what it contains,” Haney says. “There is no source of CBD I can recommend.”

FDA and Cannabis: Research and Drug Approval Process

The FDA understands that there is increasing interest in the potential utility of cannabis for a variety of medical conditions, as well as research on the potential adverse health effects from use of cannabis.

To date, the FDA has not approved a marketing application for cannabis for the treatment of any disease or condition. The agency has, however, approved one cannabis-derived drug product: Epidiolex (cannabidiol), and three synthetic cannabis-related drug products: Marinol (dronabinol), Syndros (dronabinol), and Cesamet (nabilone). These approved drug products are only available with a prescription from a licensed healthcare provider. Importantly, the FDA has not approved any other cannabis, cannabis-derived, or cannabidiol (CBD) products currently available on the market.

CANNABIS

  • Cannabis sativa L. is a plant that contains over 80 different naturally occurring compounds called “cannabinoids”
  • Two well-known cannabinoids:
    • Cannabidiol (CBD)
    • Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC)
    • Plants are grown to produce varying concentrations of cannabinoids – THC or CBD
    • These plant variations are called cultivars

    Cannabis-derived compounds

    • Compounds occurring naturally in the plant – like CBD and THC
    • These compounds are extracted directly from the plant
    • Can be used to manufacture drug products
    • Example: highly-purified CBD extracted from the plant

    Cannabis-related compounds

    • These synthetic compounds are created in a laboratory
    • Can be used to manufacture drug products
    • Some synthetic compounds may also occur naturally in the plant and some may not
    • Examples: synthetically-derived dronabinol (also naturally occurring) and nabilone (not naturally occurring)

    FDA has approved Epidiolex, which contains a purified form of the drug substance cannabidiol (CBD) for the treatment of seizures associated with Lennox-Gastaut syndrome or Dravet syndrome in patients 2 years of age and older. That means FDA has concluded that this particular drug product is safe and effective for its intended use.

    The agency also has approved Marinol and Syndros for therapeutic uses in the United States, including for nausea associated with cancer chemotherapy and for the treatment of anorexia associated with weight loss in AIDS patients. Marinol and Syndros include the active ingredient dronabinol, a synthetic delta-9- tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) which is considered the psychoactive intoxicating component of cannabis (i.e., the component responsible for the “high” people may experience from using cannabis). Another FDA-approved drug, Cesamet, contains the active ingredient nabilone, which has a chemical structure similar to THC and is synthetically derived. Cesamet, like dronabinol-containing products, is indicated for nausea associated with cancer chemotherapy.

    FDA is aware that unapproved cannabis and/or unapproved cannabis-derived products are being used to treat a number of medical conditions including, AIDS wasting, epilepsy, neuropathic pain, spasticity associated with multiple sclerosis, and cancer and chemotherapy-induced nausea. Caregivers and patients can be confident that FDA-approved drugs have been carefully evaluated for safety, efficacy, and quality, and are monitored by the FDA once they are on the market. However, the use of unapproved cannabis and cannabis-derived products can have unpredictable and unintended consequences, including serious safety risks. Also, there has been no FDA review of data from rigorous clinical trials to support that these unapproved products are safe and efficacious for the various therapeutic uses for which they are being used.

    FDA understands the need to develop therapies for patients with unmet medical needs, and does everything it can to facilitate this process. FDA has programs such as Fast Track, Breakthrough Therapy, Accelerated Approval and Priority Review that are designed to facilitate the development of and expedite the approval of drug products. In addition, the FDA’s expanded access (sometimes called “compassionate use”) statutory and regulatory provisions are designed to facilitate the availability of investigational products to patients with serious diseases or conditions when there is no comparable or satisfactory alternative therapy available, either because the patients have exhausted treatment with or are intolerant of approved therapies, or when the patients are not eligible for an ongoing clinical trial. Through these programs and the drug approval process, FDA supports sound, scientifically-based research into the medicinal uses of drug products containing cannabis or cannabis-derived compounds and will continue to work with companies interested in bringing safe, effective, and quality products to market.

    FDA Supports Sound Scientific Research

    The FDA has an important role to play in supporting scientific research into the medical uses of cannabis and its constituents in scientifically valid investigations as part of the agency’s drug review and approval process. As a part of this role, the FDA supports those in the medical research community who intend to study cannabis by:

    1. Providing information on the process needed to conduct clinical research using cannabis.
    2. Providing information on the specific requirements needed to develop a human drug that is derived from a plant such as cannabis. In December 2016, the FDA updated its Guidance for Industry: Botanical Drug Development, which provides sponsors with guidance on submitting investigational new drug (IND) applications for botanical drug products. The FDA also has issued “Cannabis and Cannabis-Derived Compounds: Quality Considerations for Clinical Research, Draft Guidance for Industry.”
    3. Providing specific support for investigators interested in conducting clinical research using cannabis and its constituents as a part of the IND or investigational new animal drug (INAD) process through meetings and regular interactions throughout the drug development process.
    4. Providing general support to investigators to help them understand and follow the procedures to conduct clinical research through the FDA Center for Drug Evaluation and Research (CDER) Small Business and Industry Assistance group.

    To conduct clinical research that can lead to an approved new drug, including research using materials from plants such as cannabis, researchers need to work with the FDA and submit an IND application to CDER. The IND application process gives researchers a path to follow that includes regular interactions with the FDA to support efficient drug development while protecting the patients who are enrolled in the trials. An IND includes protocols describing proposed studies, the qualifications of the investigators who will conduct the clinical studies, and assurances of informed consent and protection of the rights, safety, and welfare of the human subjects. The FDA reviews the IND to ensure that the proposed studies, generally referred to as “clinical trials,” do not place human subjects at an unreasonable risk of harm. The FDA also requires obtaining the informed consent of trial subjects and human subject protection in the conduct of the clinical trials. For research intending to develop an animal drug product, researchers would establish an INAD file with the Center for Veterinary Medicine (CVM) to conduct their research, rather than an IND with CDER.

    FDA is committed to encouraging the development of cannabis-related drug products, including CBD. Those interested in cannabis-derived and cannabis-related drug development are encouraged to contact the relevant CDER review division and CDER’s Botanical Review Team (BRT) to answer questions related to their specific drug development program. The BRT serves as an expert resource on botanical issues and has developed the Botanical Drug Development Guidance for Industry to assist those pursuing drug development in this area. FDA encourages researchers to request a Pre-Investigational New Drug application (PIND) meeting to discuss questions related to the development of a specific cannabis-derived and cannabis-related drug product.

    Please note that certain cultivars and parts of the Cannabis sativa L. plant are controlled under the Controlled Substances Act (CSA) since 1970 under the drug class “Marihuana” (commonly referred to as “marijuana”) [21 U.S.C. 802(16)]. “Marihuana” is listed in Schedule I of the CSA due to its high potential for abuse, which is attributable in large part to the psychoactive intoxicating effects of THC, and the absence of a currently accepted medical use in the United States. From 1970 until December of 2018, the definition of “marihuana” included all types of Cannabis Sativa L., regardless of THC content. However, in December 2018, the Agriculture Improvement Act of 2018 (also known as the Farm Bill) removed hemp, a type of cannabis that is very low in THC (cannabis or cannabis derivatives containing no more than 0.3% THC on a dry weight basis), from controls under the CSA. This change in the law may result in a more streamlined process for researchers to study cannabis and its derivatives, including CBD, that fall under the definition of hemp, a result which could speed the development of new drugs containing hemp.

    Conducting clinical research using cannabis-derived substances that are considered controlled substances under the CSA often involves interactions with several federal agencies. For example:

    • Protocols to conduct research with controlled substances listed in Schedule I are required to be conducted under a site-specific DEA investigator registration. For more information, see 21 CFR 1301.18. provides research-grade marijuana for scientific study. Through registration issued by DEA, NIDA is responsible for overseeing the cultivation of marijuana for medical research and has contracted with the University of Mississippi to grow marijuana for research at a secure facility. Marijuana of varying potencies and compositions along with marijuana-derived compounds are available. DEA also may allow additional growers to register with the DEA to produce and distribute marijuana for research purposes. DEA that, as the result of a recent amendment to federal law, certain forms of cannabis no longer require DEA registration to grow or manufacture.
    • Researchers work with the FDA and submit an IND or INAD application to the appropriate CDER divisions or other center offices depending on the therapeutic indication or population. If the research is intended to support the approval of an animal drug product, an INAD file should be established with CVM. Based on the results obtained in studies conducted at the IND or INAD stage, sponsors may submit a marketing application for formal approval of the drug.

    Cannabis Study Drugs Controlled Under Schedule I of the CSA (greater than 0.3% THC on a dry weight basis)

    Step 1

    Sponsor obtains pre-IND number through CDER review division to request a pre-IND meeting. For new animal drug research, a sponsor may engage with CVM to establish an INAD file. A pre-IND meeting with CDER is optional, and an opportunity to obtain FDA guidance on sponsor research plans and required content for an IND submission.

    Step 2

    The sponsor contacts NIDA or another DEA-registered source of cannabis and/or cannabis-derived substances to obtain information on the specific cultivars available, so that all necessary chemistry, manufacturing, and controls (CMC) and botanical raw material (BRM) information can be included in the IND. Importation of products controlled under the CSA are subject to DEA authorization.

    Step 3

    The sponsor may contact DEA to discuss Schedule I drug research plans that may require DEA inspection for an investigator and study site Schedule I license.

    Step 4

    Step 4: If the selected BRM or drug substance manufacturer holds a Drug Master File (DMF), the sponsor must obtain a Letter of Authorization (LOA) to reference CMC and BRM information. Alternatively, an IND submission would need to contain all necessary CMC data characterizing their study drug and ensuring it is safe for use in humans.

    Step 5

    The sponsor sends a copy of the IND and clinical protocol, including a LOA (if applicable), to FDA.

    Step 6

    FDA reviews the submitted IND. The sponsor must wait 30 calendar days following IND submission before initiating any clinical trials, unless FDA notifies the sponsor that the trials may proceed sooner. During this time, FDA has an opportunity to review the submission for safety to assure that research subjects will not be subjected to unreasonable risk.

    Step 7

    If the IND is authorized by FDA as “safe to proceed” the sponsor may then submit their clinical protocol registration application, including referenced IND number, to DEA to obtain the protocol registration. Once this is received, the sponsor contacts NIDA or another DEA-registered source to obtain the cannabis and/or cannabis-derived substances and they can then begin the study.

    For nonclinical research, including research conducted under an INAD file submitted established with CVM, there is no requirement of prior authorization of the protocol by FDA before the investigators may proceed with a protocol registration application submitted to DEA. For these nonclinical protocols, investigators may immediately pursue investigator and study site licensure, and protocol registration with DEA, so they may then obtain their Schedule I cannabis-derived study drug from supplier.

    Cannabis Study Drugs Containing Hemp (no more than 0.3% THC on a dry weight basis)

    Step 1

    Sponsor obtains pre-IND number through CDER review division to request a pre-IND meeting. For new animal drug research, a sponsor may engage with CVM to establish an INAD file. A pre-IND meeting with CDER is optional, and an opportunity to obtain FDA guidance on sponsor research plans and required content for an IND submission.

    Step 2

    Sponsor provides all applicable chemistry, manufacturing, and controls (CMC) and botanical raw material (BRM) information in the IND for review by FDA, including hemp cultivars.

    Step 3

    If the selected hemp manufacturer holds a Drug Master File (DMF), the sponsor must obtain a Letter of Authorization (LOA) to reference CMC and BRM information. Alternatively, an IND submission would need to contain all necessary CMC data characterizing their study drug and ensuring it is safe for use in humans.

    Step 4

    The sponsor sends a copy of the IND and clinical protocol, including a LOA (if applicable), to FDA.

    Step 5

    FDA reviews the submitted IND. The sponsor must wait 30 calendar days following IND submission before initiating any clinical trials, unless FDA notifies the sponsor that the trials may proceed sooner. During this time, FDA has an opportunity to review the submission for safety to assure that research subjects will not be subjected to unreasonable risk.

    FDA’s Role in the Drug Approval Process

    The FDA’s role in the regulation of drugs, including cannabis and cannabis-derived products, also includes review of applications to market drugs to determine whether proposed drug products are safe and effective for their intended indications. The FDA’s drug approval process requires that clinical trials be designed and conducted in a way that provides the agency with the necessary scientific data upon which the FDA can make its approval decisions. Without this review, the FDA cannot determine whether a drug product is safe and effective. It also cannot ensure that a drug product meets appropriate quality standards. For certain drugs that have not been approved by the FDA, the lack of FDA approval and oversight means the safety, effectiveness, and quality of the drug – including how potent it is, how pure it is, and whether the labeling is accurate or false – may vary considerably.

    FDA Regulation of Cannabis and Cannabis-Derived Products, Including Cannabidiol (CBD)

    There is a significant interest in the development of therapies and other consumer products derived from cannabis and its components, including cannabidiol (CBD). FDA recognizes the potential opportunities that cannabis or cannabis-derived compounds may offer and acknowledges the significant interest in these possibilities. However, FDA is aware that some companies are marketing products containing cannabis and cannabis-derived compounds in ways that violate the Federal Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act (FD&C Act) and that may put the health and safety of consumers at risk. The agency is committed to protecting the public health while also taking steps to improve the efficiency of regulatory pathways for the lawful marketing of appropriate cannabis and cannabis-derived products. FDA has a number of resources available that address cannabis and cannabis-derived products, such as CBD, and the agency wants to ensure that consumers and other stakeholders have access to these resources in a centralized location.

    Consumer Information

    FDA Communications

    Regulatory Resources

    Questions and Answers

    Below are a number of frequently asked questions and answers on this topic.

    1. What are cannabis and marijuana?

    A. Cannabis is a plant of the Cannabaceae family and contains more than eighty biologically active chemical compounds. The most commonly known compounds are delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD). Parts of the Cannabis sativa plant have been controlled under the Controlled Substances Act (CSA) since 1970 under the drug class “Marihuana” (commonly referred to as “marijuana”) [21 U.S.C. 802(16)]. “Marihuana” is listed in Schedule I of the CSA due to its high potential for abuse, which is attributable in large part to the psychoactive effects of THC, and the absence of a currently accepted medical use of the plant in the United States.

    2. How does the 2018 Farm Bill define hemp? What does it mean for FDA-regulated products?

    A. At the federal level, the Agriculture Improvement Act of 2018, Pub. L. 115-334, (the 2018 Farm Bill) was signed into law on Dec. 20, 2018. Among other things, this new law changes certain federal authorities relating to the production and marketing of hemp, defined as “the plant Cannabis sativa L. and any part of that plant, including the seeds thereof and all derivatives, extracts, cannabinoids, isomers, acids, salts, and salts of isomers, whether growing or not, with a delta-9 tetrahydrocannabinol concentration of not more than 0.3 percent on a dry weight basis.” These changes include removing hemp from the CSA, which means that cannabis plants and derivatives that contain no more than 0.3 percent THC on a dry weight basis are no longer controlled substances under federal law.

    The 2018 Farm Bill, however, explicitly preserved FDA’s authority to regulate products containing cannabis or cannabis-derived compounds under the FD&C Act and section 351 of the Public Health Service Act (PHS Act). FDA treats products containing cannabis or cannabis-derived compounds as it does any other FDA-regulated products — meaning they’re subject to the same authorities and requirements as FDA-regulated products containing any other substance. This is true regardless of whether the cannabis or cannabis-derived compounds are classified as hemp under the 2018 Farm Bill.

    3. Has FDA approved any medical products containing cannabis or cannabis-derived compounds such as CBD?

    A. To date, the agency has not approved a marketing application for cannabis for the treatment of any disease or condition. FDA has, however, approved one cannabis-derived and three cannabis-related drug products. These approved products are only available with a prescription from a licensed healthcare provider.

    FDA has approved Epidiolex, which contains a purified form of the drug substance CBD for the treatment of seizures associated with Lennox-Gastaut syndrome or Dravet syndrome in patients 1 years of age and older. It has also approved Epidiolex for the treatment of seizures associated with tuberous sclerosis complex in patients 1 year of age or older. That means FDA has concluded that this particular drug product is safe and effective for its intended use.

    The agency also has approved Marinol and Syndros for therapeutic uses in the United States, including for the treatment of anorexia associated with weight loss in AIDS patients. Marinol and Syndros include the active ingredient dronabinol, a synthetic delta-9- tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) which is considered the psychoactive component of cannabis. Another FDA-approved drug, Cesamet, contains the active ingredient nabilone, which has a chemical structure similar to THC and is synthetically derived.

    4. Aside from Epidiolex, are there other CBD drug products that are FDA-approved? What about the products I’ve seen in stores or online?

    A. No. There are no other FDA-approved drug products that contain CBD. We are aware that some firms are marketing CBD products to treat diseases or for other therapeutic uses , and we have issued several warning letters to such firms. Under the FD&C Act, any product intended to have a therapeutic or medical use, and any product (other than a food) that is intended to affect the structure or function of the body of humans or animals, is a drug. Drugs must generally either receive premarket approval by FDA through the New Drug Application (NDA) process or conform to a “monograph” for a particular drug category, as established by FDA’s Over-the-Counter (OTC) Drug Review. CBD was not an ingredient considered under the OTC drug review. An unapproved new drug cannot be distributed or sold in interstate commerce.

    FDA continues to be concerned at the proliferation of products asserting to contain CBD that are marketed for therapeutic or medical uses although they have not been approved by FDA. Often such products are sold online and are therefore available throughout the country. Selling unapproved products with unsubstantiated therapeutic claims is not only a violation of the law, but also can put patients at risk, as these products have not been proven to be safe or effective. This deceptive marketing of unproven treatments also raises significant public health concerns, because patients and other consumers may be influenced not to use approved therapies to treat serious and even fatal diseases.

    Unlike drugs approved by FDA, products that have not been subject to FDA review as part of the drug approval process have not been evaluated as to whether they work, what the proper dosage may be if they do work, how they could interact with other drugs, or whether they have dangerous side effects or other safety concerns.

    The agency has and will continue to monitor the marketplace and take action as needed to protect the public health against companies illegally selling cannabis and cannabis-derived products that can put consumers at risk and that are being marketed for therapeutic uses for which they are not approved. At the same time, FDA recognizes the potential therapeutic opportunities that cannabis or cannabis-derived compounds could offer and acknowledges the significant interest in these possibilities. FDA continues to believe that the drug approval process represents the best way to help ensure that safe and effective new medicines, including any drugs derived from cannabis, are available to patients in need of appropriate medical therapy. The Center for Drug Evaluation and Research (CDER) is committed to supporting the development of new drugs, including cannabis and cannabis-derived drugs, through the investigational new drug (IND) and drug approval process (see Question #16).

    5. Why hasn’t FDA approved more products containing cannabis or cannabis-derived compounds for medical uses?

    A. FDA is aware that unapproved cannabis or cannabis-derived products are being used for the treatment of a number of medical conditions including, for example, AIDS wasting, epilepsy, neuropathic pain, spasticity associated with multiple sclerosis, and cancer and chemotherapy-induced nausea.

    To date, FDA has not approved a marketing application for cannabis for the treatment of any disease or condition and thus has not determined that cannabis is safe and effective for any particular disease or condition. The agency has, however, approved one cannabis-derived and three cannabis-related drug products (see Question #2).

    FDA relies on applicants and scientific investigators to conduct research. The agency’s role, as laid out in the FD&C Act, is to review data submitted to the FDA in an application for approval to ensure that the drug product meets the statutory standards for approval.

    The study of cannabis and cannabis-derived compounds in clinical trial settings is needed to assess the safety and effectiveness of these substances for the treatment of any disease or condition. FDA’s December 2016 Guidance for Industry: Botanical Drug Development provides specific recommendations on submitting INDs for botanical drug products, such as those derived from cannabis, in support of future marketing applications for these products. The agency’s July 2020 draft guidance, Cannabis and Cannabis-Derived Compounds: Quality Considerations for Clinical Research Guidance for Industry, highlights quality considerations for anyone wishing to conduct clinical research in this area, particularly those who are less familiar with the FDA.

    The FDA will continue to facilitate the work of companies interested in appropriately bringing safe, effective, and quality products to market, including scientifically-based research concerning the medicinal uses of cannabis. Additional information concerning research on the medical use of cannabis is available from the National Institutes of Health, particularly the National Cancer Institute (NCI) and National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA).

    6. What is FDA’s reaction to states that are allowing cannabis to be sold for medical uses without the FDA’s approval?

    A. The FDA is aware that several states have either passed laws that remove state restrictions on the medical use of cannabis and its derivatives or are considering doing so. It is important to conduct medical research into the safety and effectiveness of cannabis products through adequate and well-controlled clinical trials. We welcome the opportunity to talk with states who are considering support for medical research of cannabis and its derivatives, so that we can provide information on Federal and scientific standards.

    7. Has the agency received any adverse event reports associated with cannabis use for medical conditions?

    A. The agency has received reports of adverse events in patients using cannabis or cannabis-derived products to treat medical conditions. The FDA reviews such reports and will continue to monitor adverse event reports for any safety signals, with a focus on serious adverse effects. Consumers and healthcare providers can report adverse events associated with cannabis or cannabis-derived products via the FDA’s MedWatch reporting system, either online or by phone at 1-800-FDA-1088. For more information, please see the FDA’s webpage on MedWatch.

    Information from adverse event reports regarding cannabis use is extremely limited; the FDA primarily receives adverse event reports for approved products. General information on the potential adverse effects of using cannabis and its constituents can come from clinical trials that have been published, as well as from spontaneously reported adverse events sent to the FDA. Additional information about the safety and effectiveness of cannabis and its constituents is needed. Clinical trials of cannabis conducted under an IND application could collect this important information as a part of the drug development process.

    8. Is it legal for me to sell CBD products?

    A. It depends, among other things, on the intended use of the product and how it is labeled and marketed. Even if a CBD product meets the definition of “hemp” under the 2018 Farm Bill (see Question #2), it still must comply with all other applicable laws, including the FD&C Act. The below questions and answers explain some of the ways that specific parts of the FD&C Act can affect the legality of CBD products.

    We are aware that state and local authorities are fielding numerous questions about the legality of CBD. There is ongoing communication with state and local officials to answer questions about requirements under the FD&C Act, to better understand the landscape at the state level, and to otherwise engage with state/local regulatory partners.

    9. Can THC or CBD products be sold as dietary supplements?

    A. No. Based on available evidence, FDA has concluded that THC and CBD products are excluded from the dietary supplement definition under section 201(ff)(3)(B) of the FD&C Act [21 U.S.C. § 321(ff)(3)(B)]. Under that provision, if a substance (such as THC or CBD) is an active ingredient in a drug product that has been approved under section 505 of the FD&C Act [21 U.S.C. § 355], or has been authorized for investigation as a new drug for which substantial clinical investigations have been instituted and for which the existence of such investigations has been made public, then products containing that substance are excluded from the definition of a dietary supplement. FDA considers a substance to be “authorized for investigation as a new drug” if it is the subject of an Investigational New Drug application (IND) that has gone into effect. Under FDA’s regulations (21 CFR 312.2), unless a clinical investigation meets the limited criteria in that regulation, an IND is required for all clinical investigations of products that are subject to section 505 of the FD&C Act.

    There is an exception to section 201(ff)(3)(B) if the substance was “marketed as” a dietary supplement or as a conventional food before the drug was approved or before the new drug investigations were authorized, as applicable. However, based on available evidence, FDA has concluded that this is not the case for THC or CBD.

    FDA is not aware of any evidence that would call into question its current conclusions that THC and CBD products are excluded from the dietary supplement definition under section 201(ff)(3)(B) of the FD&C Act. Interested parties may present the agency with any evidence that they think has bearing on this issue. Our continuing review of information that has been submitted thus far has not caused us to change our conclusions.

    When a substance is excluded from the dietary supplement definition under section 201(ff)(3)(B) of the FD&C Act, the exclusion applies unless FDA, in the agency’s discretion, has issued a regulation, after notice and comment, finding that the article would be lawful under the FD&C Act. To date, no such regulation has been issued for any substance.

    Ingredients that are derived from parts of the cannabis plant that do not contain THC or CBD might fall outside the scope of this exclusion, and therefore might be able to be marketed as dietary supplements. However, all products marketed as dietary supplements must comply with all applicable laws and regulations governing dietary supplement products. For example, manufacturers and distributors who wish to market dietary supplements that contain “new dietary ingredients” (i.e., dietary ingredients that were not marketed in the United States in a dietary supplement before October 15, 1994) generally must notify FDA about these ingredients (see section 413(d) of the FD&C Act [21 U.S.C. § 350b(d)]). Generally, the notification must include information demonstrating that a dietary supplement containing the new dietary ingredient will reasonably be expected to be safe under the conditions of use recommended or suggested in the labeling. A dietary supplement is adulterated if it contains a new dietary ingredient for which there is inadequate information to provide reasonable assurance that the ingredient does not present a significant or unreasonable risk of illness or injury (see section 402(f)(1)(B) of the FD&C Act [21 U.S.C. 342(f)(1)(B)]).

    Numerous other legal requirements apply to dietary supplement products, including requirements relating to Current Good Manufacturing Practices (CGMPs) and labeling. Information about these requirements, and about FDA requirements across all product areas, can be found on FDA’s website.

    10. Is it legal, in interstate commerce, to sell a food (including any animal food or feed) to which THC or CBD has been added?

    A. No. Under section 301(ll) of the FD&C Act [21 U.S.C. § 331(ll)], it is prohibited to introduce or deliver for introduction into interstate commerce any food (including any animal food or feed) to which has been added a substance which is an active ingredient in a drug product that has been approved under section 505 of the FD&C Act [21 U.S.C. § 355], or a drug for which substantial clinical investigations have been instituted and for which the existence of such investigations has been made public. There are exceptions, including when the drug was marketed in food before the drug was approved or before the substantial clinical investigations involving the drug had been instituted or, in the case of animal feed, that the drug is a new animal drug approved for use in feed and used according to the approved labeling. However, based on available evidence, FDA has concluded that none of these is the case for THC or CBD. FDA has therefore concluded that it is a prohibited act to introduce or deliver for introduction into interstate commerce any food (including any animal food or feed) to which THC or CBD has been added. FDA is not aware of any evidence that would call into question these conclusions. Interested parties may present the agency with any evidence that they think has bearing on this issue. Our continuing review of information that has been submitted thus far has not caused us to change our conclusions.

    When this statutory prohibition applies to a substance, it prohibits the introduction into interstate commerce of any food to which the substance has been added unless FDA, in the agency’s discretion, has issued a regulation approving the use of the substance in the food (section 301(ll)(2) of the FD&C Act [21 U.S.C. § 331(ll)(2)]). To date, no such regulation has been issued for any substance.

    Ingredients that are derived from parts of the cannabis plant that do not contain THC or CBD might fall outside the scope of 301(ll), and therefore might be able to be added to food. For example, as discussed in Question #12, certain hemp seed ingredients can be legally marketed in human food. However, all food ingredients must comply with all applicable laws and regulations. For example, by statute, any substance intentionally added to food is a food additive, and therefore subject to premarket review and approval by FDA, unless the substance is generally recognized as safe (GRAS) by qualified experts under the conditions of its intended use, or the use of the substance is otherwise excepted from the definition of a food additive (sections 201(s) and 409 of the FD&C Act [21 U.S.C. §§ 321(s) and 348]). Aside from the three hemp seed ingredients mentioned in Question #12, no other cannabis or cannabis-derived ingredients have been the subject of a food additive petition, an evaluated GRAS notification, or have otherwise been approved for use in food by FDA. Food companies that wish to use cannabis or cannabis-derived ingredients in their foods are subject to the relevant laws and regulations that govern all food products, including those that relate to the food additive and GRAS processes.

    11. In making the two previous determinations about THC, why did FDA conclude that THC is an active ingredient in a drug product that has been approved under section 505 of the FD&C Act? In making the two previous determinations about CBD, why did FDA determine that substantial clinical investigations have been authorized for and/or instituted, and that the existence of such investigations has been made public?

    A. THC (dronabinol) is the active ingredient in the approved drug products, Marinol capsules (and generics) and Syndros oral solution. CBD is the active ingredient in the approved drug product, Epidiolex.

    The existence of substantial clinical investigations regarding THC and CBD have been made public. For example, two such substantial clinical investigations include GW Pharmaceuticals’ investigations regarding Sativex. (See Sativex Commences US Phase II/III Clinical Trial in Cancer Pain )

    12. Can hulled hemp seed, hemp seed protein powder, and hemp seed oil be used in human food?

    A. In December 2018, FDA completed its evaluation of three generally recognized as safe (GRAS) notices for the following hemp seed-derived food ingredients: hulled hemp seed, hemp seed protein powder, and hemp seed oil. FDA had no questions regarding the company’s conclusion that the use of such products as described in the notices is safe. Therefore, these products can be legally marketed in human foods for the uses described in the notices, provided they comply with all other requirements. These GRAS notices related only to the use of these ingredients in human food. To date, FDA has not received any GRAS notices for the use of hemp-derived ingredients in animal food (see Question #25).

    Hemp seeds are the seeds of the Cannabis sativa plant. The seeds of the plant do not naturally contain THC or CBD. The hemp seed-derived ingredients that are the subject of these GRAS notices contain only trace amounts of THC and CBD, which the seeds may pick up during harvesting and processing when they are in contact with other parts of the plant. Consumption of these hemp seed-derived ingredients is not capable of making consumers “high.”

    The GRAS conclusions can apply to ingredients for human food marketed by other companies, if they are manufactured in a way that is consistent with the notices and they meet the listed specifications. Some of the intended uses for these ingredients include adding them as source of protein, carbohydrates, oil, and other nutrients to beverages (juices, smoothies, protein drinks, plant-based alternatives to dairy products), soups, dips, spreads, sauces, dressings, plant-based alternatives to meat products, desserts, baked goods, cereals, snacks and nutrition bars. Products that contain any of these hemp seed-derived ingredients must declare them by name on the ingredient list.

    These GRAS conclusions do not affect the FDA’s position on the addition of CBD and THC to food.

    13. What is FDA’s position on cannabis and cannabis-derived ingredients in cosmetics?

    A. A cosmetic is defined in 201(i) as “(1) articles intended to be rubbed, poured, sprinkled, or sprayed on, introduced into, or otherwise applied to the human body or any part thereof for cleansing, beautifying, promoting attractiveness, or altering the appearance, and (2) articles intended for use as a component of any such articles; except that such term shall not include soap.”

    Under the FD&C Act, cosmetic products and ingredients are not subject to premarket approval by FDA, except for most color additives. Certain cosmetic ingredients are prohibited or restricted by regulation, but currently that is not the case for any cannabis or cannabis-derived ingredients. Ingredients not specifically addressed by regulation must nonetheless comply with all applicable requirements, and no ingredient – including a cannabis or cannabis-derived ingredient – can be used in a cosmetic if it causes the product to be adulterated or misbranded in any way. A cosmetic generally is adulterated if it bears or contains any poisonous or deleterious substance which may render it injurious to users under the conditions of use prescribed in the labeling, or under such conditions of use as are customary or usual (section 601(a) of the FD&C Act [21 U.S.C. § 361(a)]).

    If a product is intended to affect the structure or function of the body, or to diagnose, cure, mitigate, treat or prevent disease, it is a drug, or possibly both a cosmetic and a drug, even if it affects the appearance. (See Question #3 for more information about drugs.)

    FDA can take action if it has information that an ingredient or cosmetic product is unsafe to consumers. Consumers can report adverse events associated with cosmetic products via the FDA’s MedWatch reporting system, either online or by phone at 1-800-FDA-1088, or by contacting your nearest FDA district office consumer complaint coordinator. For more information, please see the FDA’s webpage on how to report a cosmetic-related complaint.

    14. Will FDA take action against cannabis or cannabis-related products that are in violation of the FD&C Act?

    A. The FDA has sent warning letters in the past to companies illegally selling CBD products that claimed to prevent, diagnose, treat, or cure serious diseases, such as cancer. Some of these products were in further violation of the FD&C Act because they were marketed as dietary supplements or because they involved the addition of CBD to food.

    When a product is in violation of the FD&C Act, FDA considers many factors in deciding whether or not to initiate an enforcement action. Those factors include, among other things, agency resources and the threat to the public health. FDA also may consult with its federal and state partners in making decisions about whether to initiate a federal enforcement action.

    15. Can I import or export cannabis-containing or cannabis-derived products?

    A. General information about the import/export of drug products regulated by FDA can be found online here. The Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) is the federal agency responsible for enforcing the controlled substance laws and regulations in the U.S. and, as such, should be consulted with respect to any regulations/requirements they may have regarding the import or export of products containing cannabis. Please see here for information about importing or exporting food ingredients.

    Regarding imports, if it appears that an article is adulterated, misbranded, in violation of section 505 of the FD&C Act, or prohibited from introduction or delivery for introduction into interstate commerce under section 301(ll) of the FD&C Act, such article will be refused admission (see section 801(a)(3) of the FD&C Act [21 U.S.C. § 381(a)(3)]).

    Research and Expanded Access

    16. What is FDA’s role when it comes to the investigation of cannabis and cannabis-derived products for medical use?

    A. To conduct clinical research that can lead to an approved new drug, including research using materials from plants such as cannabis, researchers need to work with the FDA and submit an IND application to the Center for Drug Evaluation and Research (CDER). The IND application process gives researchers a path to follow that includes regular interactions with the FDA to support efficient drug development while protecting the patients who are enrolled in the trials. For research for use as an animal drug product, researchers would establish an investigational new animal drug (INAD) file with the Center for Veterinary Medicine to conduct their research, rather than an IND with CDER.

    As discussed above (see Question #2), the 2018 Farm Bill removed hemp from the CSA. This change may streamline the process for researchers to study cannabis and its derivatives, including CBD, that fall under the definition of hemp, which could speed the development of new drugs.

    As also discussed above (see Question #5) the agency also issued a draft guidance in July 2020, Cannabis and Cannabis-Derived Compounds: Quality Considerations for Clinical Research Guidance for Industry, for individuals considering clinical research in this area.

    Conducting clinical research using cannabis-related substances that are scheduled by the DEA often involves interactions with several federal agencies. This includes: a registration administered by the DEA; obtaining the cannabis for research from NIDA, within the National Institutes of Health, or another DEA-registered source; and review by the FDA of the IND or INAD application and research protocol. Additionally:

    • For a Schedule I controlled substance under the CSA, DEA provides researchers with investigator and protocol registrations and has Schedule I-level security requirements at the site cannabis will be studied.
    • NIDA provides research-grade cannabis for scientific study. The agency is responsible for overseeing the cultivation of cannabis for medical research and has contracted with the University of Mississippi to grow cannabis for research at a secure facility. Cannabis of varying potencies and compositions is available. DEA also may allow additional growers to register with the DEA to produce and distribute cannabis for research purposes.
    • Researchers work with the FDA and submit an IND application to the appropriate division in the Office of New Drugs in CDER depending on the therapeutic indication. Based on the results obtained in studies conducted at the IND stage, sponsors may submit a marketing application for formal approval of the drug.

    17. Does the FDA object to the clinical investigation of cannabis for medical use?

    A. No. The FDA believes that scientifically valid research conducted under an IND application is the best way to determine what patients could benefit from the use of drugs derived from cannabis. The FDA supports the conduct of that research by:

    1. Providing information on the process needed to conduct clinical research using cannabis.
    2. Providing information on the specific requirements needed to develop a drug that is derived from a plant such as cannabis. In December 2016, the FDA updated its Guidance for Industry: Botanical Drug Development, which provides sponsors with guidance on submitting IND applications for botanical drug products.
    3. Providing specific support for investigators interested in conducting clinical research using cannabis and its constituents as a part of the IND process through meetings and regular interactions throughout the drug development process.
    4. Providing general support to investigators to help them understand and follow the procedures to conduct clinical research through the FDA Center for Drug Evaluation and Research’s Small Business and Industry Assistance group.

    18. How can patients gain access to cannabis or cannabis-derived products for medical use through expanded access?

    A. Expanded access is a potential pathway for a patient with a serious or life-threatening disease or condition to try an investigational medical product (drug, biologic, or medical device) for treatment outside of clinical trials when there are no comparable or satisfactory therapies available. Manufacturers may be able to make investigational drugs available to individual patients in certain circumstances through expanded access, as described in the FD&C Act and implementing regulations.

    19. Can patients gain access to cannabis or cannabis-derived products for medical use through Right to Try?

    A. Information for patients on Right to Try (RTT) is available on our website. RTT is designed to facilitate access to certain investigational drugs through direct interactions between patients, their physicians and drug sponsors – FDA is not involved in these decisions. Sponsors developing drugs for life-threatening conditions are responsible for determining whether to make their products available to patients who qualify for access under RTT. If you are interested in RTT, you should discuss this pathway with your licensed physician. Companies who develop drugs and biologics, also known as sponsors, can provide information about whether their drug/biologic is considered an eligible investigational drug under RTT and if they are able to provide the drug/biologic under the RTT Act.

    Children and Pregnant/Lactating Women

    20. Does the FDA have concerns about administering a cannabis product to children?

    A. We understand that parents are trying to find treatments for their children’s medical conditions. However, the use of untested drugs can have unpredictable and unintended consequences. Caregivers and patients can be confident that FDA-approved drugs have been carefully evaluated for safety, efficacy, and quality, and are monitored by the FDA once they are on the market. The FDA continues to support sound, scientifically-based research into the medicinal uses of drug products containing cannabis or cannabis-derived compounds, and will continue to work with companies interested in bringing safe, effective, and quality products to market. With the exception of Epidiolex, Marinol, and Syndros, no product containing cannabis or cannabis-derived compounds (either plant-based or synthetic) has been approved as safe and effective for use in any patient population, whether pediatric or adult.

    21. Does the FDA have concerns about administering a cannabis product to pregnant and lactating women?

    A. The FDA is aware that there are potential adverse health effects with use of cannabis products containing THC in pregnant or lactating women. Published scientific literature reports potential adverse effects of cannabis use in pregnant women, including fetal growth restriction, low birth weight, preterm birth, small-for-gestational age, neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) admission, and stillbirth. [1, 2, 3] Based on published animal research, there are also concerns that use of cannabis during pregnancy may negatively impact fetal brain development. [4, 5, 6 ] The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG) recommends that women who are pregnant or contemplating pregnancy should be encouraged to discontinue cannabis use. In addition, ACOG notes that there are insufficient data to evaluate the effects of cannabis use on breastfed infants; therefore, cannabis use is discouraged when breastfeeding. [7] Pregnant and lactating women should talk with a health care provider about the potential adverse health effects of cannabis use.

    22. What does the FDA think about making CBD available to children with epilepsy?

    A. The FDA has approved Epidiolex, which contains a purified form of the drug substance CBD, for the treatment of seizures associated with Lennox-Gastaut syndrome or Dravet syndrome in patients 1 years of age and older. It has also approved Epidiolex for the treatment of seizures associated with tuberous sclerosis complex in patients 1 year of age or older. That means the FDA has concluded that this particular drug product is safe and effective for its intended use. Controlled clinical trials testing the safety and efficacy of a drug, along with careful review through the FDA’s drug approval process, is the most appropriate way to bring cannabis-derived treatments to patients. Because of the adequate and well-controlled clinical studies that supported this approval, and the assurance of manufacturing quality standards, prescribers can have confidence in the drug’s uniform strength and consistent delivery that support appropriate dosing needed for treating patients with these complex and serious epilepsy syndromes.

    23. What should I do if my child eats something containing cannabis?

    A. With the exception of products such as the hemp seed ingredients discussed in Question #12, which have been evaluated for safety, it is important to protect children from accidental ingestion of cannabis and cannabis-containing products. FDA recommends that these products are kept out of reach of children to reduce the risk of accidental ingestion. If the parent or caregiver has a reasonable suspicion that the child accidentally ingested products containing cannabis, the child should be taken to a physician or emergency department, especially if the child acts in an unusual way or is/feels sick.

    Pets and other Animals

    24. I’ve seen cannabis products being marketed for pets. Are they safe?

    A. FDA is aware of some cannabis products being marketed as animal health products. We want to stress that FDA has not approved cannabis for any use in animals, and the agency cannot ensure the safety or effectiveness of these products. For these reasons, FDA cautions pet-owners against the use of such products and recommends that you talk with your veterinarian about appropriate treatment options for your pet.

    Signs that your pet may be suffering adverse effects from ingesting cannabis may include lethargy, depression, heavy drooling, vomiting, agitation, tremors, and convulsions.

    If you have concerns that your pet is suffering adverse effects from ingesting cannabis or any substance containing cannabis, consult your veterinarian, local animal emergency hospital or an animal poison control center immediately.

    While the agency is aware of reports of pets consuming various forms of cannabis, to date, FDA has not directly received any reports of adverse events associated with animals given cannabis products. However, adverse events from accidental ingestion are well-documented in scientific literature. If you feel your animal has suffered from ingesting cannabis, we encourage you to report the adverse event to the FDA. Please visit Reporting Information about Animal Drugs and Devices to learn more about how to report an adverse event related to an animal drug or for how to report an adverse event or problem with a pet food.

    25. Can hemp be added to animal food?

    A. All ingredients in animal food must be the subject of an approved food additive petition or generally recognized as safe (GRAS) for their intended use in the intended species. If an animal food contains an ingredient that is not the subject of an approved food additive petition or GRAS for its intended use in the intended species, that animal food would be adulterated under section 402(a)(2)(C)(i) of the FD&C Act [21 U.S.C. § 342(a)(2)(C)(i)]. In coordination with state feed control officials, CVM also recognizes ingredients listed in the Official Publication (OP) of the Association of American Feed Control Officials (AAFCO) as being acceptable for use in animal food. At this time, there are no approved food additive petitions or ingredient definitions listed in the AAFCO OP for any substances derived from hemp, and we are unaware of any GRAS conclusions regarding the use of any substances derived from hemp in animal food. Learn more about animal food ingredient submissions here.

    With respect to products labeled to contain “hemp” that may also contain THC or CBD, as mentioned above it is a prohibited act under section 301(ll) of the FD&C Act to introduce or deliver for introduction into interstate commerce any animal food to which THC or CBD has been added.

    26. Can approved human drugs containing CBD or synthetic THC be used extralabel in animals?

    A. The Animal Medicinal Drug Use Clarification Act of 1994 (AMDUCA), permits veterinarians to prescribe extralabel uses of approved human and animal drugs for animals under certain conditions. Extralabel use must comply with all the provisions of AMDUCA and its implementing regulation at 21 CFR § 530. Among other limitations, these provisions allow extralabel use of a drug only on the lawful order of a licensed veterinarian in the context of a valid veterinarian-client-patient relationship and only in circumstances when the health of an animal is threatened or suffering, or death may result from failure to treat.

    In addition, under 21 CFR 530.20, extralabel use of an approved human drug in a food-producing animal is not permitted if an animal drug approved for use in food-producing animals can be used in an extralabel manner for the use. In addition, under 21 CFR 530.20(b)(2), if scientific information on the human food safety aspect of the use of the approved human drug in food-producing animals is not available, the veterinarian must take appropriate measures to ensure that the animal and its food products will not enter the human food supply.
    For more information on extralabel use of FDA approved drugs in animals, see Extralabel Use of FDA Approved Drugs In Animals.

    [1] Gray, et al. Identifying Prenatal Cannabis Exposure and Effects of Concurrent Tobacco Exposure on Neonatal Growth. Clinical Chemistry. 2010; 56(9): 1442-1450.

    [2] Gunn, et al. Prenatal Exposure to cannabis and maternal and child health outcomes: a systematic review and meta-analysis. BMJ Open. 2016; 6:e009986.

    [3] Hayatbakhsh, et al. Birth Outcomes associated with cannabis use before and during pregnancy. Pediatric Research. 2012; 71 (2): 215-219.

    [4] Silva, et al. Prenatal tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) alters cognitive function and amphetamine response from weaning to adulthood in the rat. Neurotoxicol and Teratol 2012; 34(1): 63-71.

    [5] Trezza, et al. Effects of perinatal exposure to delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol on the emotional reactivity of the offspring: a longitudinal behavioral study in Wistar rats. Psychopharmacology (Berl) 2008; 198(4): 529-537.

    [6] Campolongo, et al. Perinatal exposure to delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol causes enduring cognitive deficits associated with alteration of cortical gene expression and neurotransmission in rats. Addict Biol 2007; 12(3-4): 485–495.

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How to get a prescription for cbd oil in canada

Do You Need a Prescription for CBD Oil in Canada?

As of October 2019, CBD (cannabidiol) oil with a THC level > 3% continues to require a prescription, however laws are subject to change and alternatives continue to be available (details below).

The regulation of cannabis and all its derivatives in Canada continues to be governed by the Cannabis Act which set forth regulations for the production, sale and distribution of cannabis since 2018.

Of particular concern is the legality of CBD oil. Known to be helpful for a variety of ailments, its popularity has increased substantially around the world due to its therapeutic use in a variety of conditions. Some of the well-known positive effects relate to its relaxing effect on the brain which in turn affects the nervous system and eases pain, anxiety and promotes healthy sleep.

Since CBD is one of the chemical substances in the highly regulated/prohibited cannabis plant, there has been a great deal of confusion regarding the legalities and possible prescription requirements for the purchase of CBD oil in Canada.

Under the Cannabis Act, strict regulations on products containing CBD (including CBD oil) continue to be enforced. Sale of these products is legal when they are sold under compliance with the regulations governing possession, production, distribution & sale through licensed producers and distributors.

Each province has its own age limits and licensing agency. The regulatory body in Ontario, for example, is the Alcohol and Gaming Commission of Ontario which has been given the right to regulate the sale of marijuana in private stores in this province.

Prior to all this, the Access to Cannabis for Medical Purposes Regulations (ACMPR) came into effect in 2016 recognizing the rights of individuals to produce medical cannabis products including oils, tinctures, edibles and plant flowers with a valid authorization (prescription) from their healthcare practitioner.

Cannabis Act Amendment (2019)

The Cannabis Act was recently amended on October 17, 2019, to allow growth in the market that was hindered as a result of heavy legal barriers and government restrictions.

The main changes involve regulatory laws regarding provincial approval of operating licenses for sale of edible and topical products containing cannabis.

The amendment now allows licensed producers to submit edible and topical products to Health Canada which are then subject to a 60-to-90-day approval and procurement process.

Rules Governing CBD Oil & Prescriptions

The current rules governing the requirement of a prescription for CBD oil are as follows:

  • CBD oil with a THC level > 3% is legal with a prescription from a licensed supplier or dispensary
  • CBD oil with a THC level < 0.3% is legal in Canada without a prescription, for personal use only

CBD oil is available for sale in Canada with or without a prescription from either provincially or territorially-authorized cannabis retailers or federally-licensed seller of cannabis for medical purposes.

The Popularity of CBD Oil Continues to Rise

CBD is an extract from the cannabis plant that has been used to support health by supplementing the human endocannabinoid system.

The system contains receptors that produce an effect on the brain when supplemented with CBD compounds, producing a positive effect on the nervous system and overall feeling of wellbeing.

CBD does not produce THC (tetrahyrocannabinol), the primary psychoactive component of cannabis that creates an intoxicated or “high” feeling.

Cannabinoids such as CBD direct certain receptors in the brain to use cannabinoids naturally produced in the body. The net effect of this action is the therapeutic effect commonly associated with the use of CBD oil.

The Benefits of High-Quality CBD Oil

CBD Oil is being used for a variety of health conditions, including:

  • Depression
  • Epilepsy
  • Pain relief
  • Reducing inflammation
  • Anxiety
  • PTSD
  • Multiple sclerosis
  • Acne & other skin conditions

How Do You Take CBD Oil?

CBD Oil can be taken through ingestion of edible food products such as baked goods, candies or infused into butter or other oils. Other popular ways include capsules, pills or inhalation through the use of vaporization devices.

A very effective way to take CBD oil is via a tincture commonly administered under the tongue which has been shown to be best for absorption.

CBD Oil & Canadian Law

Despite its many benefits, CBD oil in Canada continues to be a highly-regulated product requiring a prescription when THC levels exceed 3%.

CBD oil legally available with a prescription in Canada is only available through producers licensed by the government under the Cannabis Act.

Issues with CBD Oil Quality in Canada

The quality of CBD oil available by government-licensed producers has come into question with consumer complaints being made about the minimal availability and quality of the product.

The most common issue about the oils produced by licensed distributors concerns the “carrier” oil, which has been suspected to be of low quality and contain significant amounts of pesticides and herbicides.

Consumer reviews about the quality of CBD oil have determined that the best quality CBD oil was available from “grey market” retailers that were operating in the dispensary market prior to the Cannabis Act of 2018.

Availability of High-Quality CBD Oil

The current law states that only federally-approved companies may sell CBD oil in Canada which has been found to be of lower quality.

Companies with the capacity to produce high-quality CBD oil and sell through dispensaries are not legally allowed to sell their products in Canada due to restrictions in the current licensing framework.

Plans to include dispensary operations in the current framework are currently underway for inclusion in the regulatory framework. Until that time most Canadians currently opt to purchase high-quality CBD oil with THC from online sources.

Buying CBD in Canada — What You Need to Know

Since October 2018, cannabis — both hemp and marijuana are legal for both medical and recreational use.

Today, you can purchase hemp-derived CBD products and marijuana flowers across Canadian dispensaries without a doctor’s prescription.

Legal cannabis comes with strict regulation and plenty of legal hoops to jump through just to be able to operate in the Canadian market. Many companies operating in Europe and the United States are unavailable in Canada as a direct result of this.

The best place to find CBD products approved for the Canadian market is at CBD Oil Canada.

This article will take you on a walk through the Canadian CBD world where you’ll learn the best options for buying CBD.

Summary: Buying CBD in Canada

  • For the most part, CBD oil brands in Canada aren’t available outside the country — for the best selection of Canadian-specific CBD products, check out the selection at CBD Oil Canada
  • CBD is regulated under the Cannabis Act, and it falls under the same regulations as cannabis — regardless of its THC content
  • CBD oils are completely legal in Canada, and you can buy it without a prescription
  • You won’t be able to buy CBD oil from most US or European CBD brands (exception is Endoca)
  • CBD retailers must be authorized to sell cannabis products — a process that can take many months and cripling legal fees

Best CBD Vendors in Canada

1. CBD Oil Canada (Third-Party Vendor)

CBD Oil Canada is an online shop that carries most of the Canadian vendors on this list. They’re a third-party vendor which means they don’t actually make their own CBD products — they merely offer a selection of different brands like any other retail or ecommerce shop.

2. Honest Botanicals

Honest Botanicals is based out of Vancouver where they have access to some of the best hemp in Canada, all year round. They carry all the essentials — topicals, oils, capsules, gummies, and a few other categories. Pricing remains competitive with the Canadian market and their products meet all the expectations for testing and potency.

3. Island Therapeutics

Island Therapeutics is based on Vancouver island. They specialize in full-spectrum holistic CBD products. Some of their products feature additional herbs and nutrients to provide even greater benefit for combatting symptoms like pain or anxiety.

4. Miss Envy

Miss Envy is another Vancouver-based company (seems to be a bit of a pattern here) with some top-notch cannabinoid products — not limited to just CBD.

This company carries some of the best CBD concentrates and phoenix tears we’ve tried yet.

How to Buy CBD Products in Canada (Legally)

The Canadian CBD market is very different from pretty much everywhere else simply because the whole plant is legal and regulated. The same restrictions apply whether a company is selling CBD oil or psychoactive THC oil.

In order for CBD brands to operate here, they need to spend a ton of money on legal fees and applications and endure a rigorous application process that can take over a year to complete.

This process makes the CBD industry much more reliable than in places like the US — but it also drives up the price of CBD oil and severely limits the number of companies that offer their products in Canada.

In order to even sell CBD oil in Canada, companies need to go through a completely separate application process that requires a lot of experience to navigate. This makes it both tedious and expensive.

This means many US brands haven’t bothered to apply and don’t offer direct shipping to Canada. It also means the CBD marketplace in Canada is very unique to the country. Many of the brands operating here aren’t offered anywhere else in the world.

The best place to shop for Canadian CBD products is through a Canadian CBD marketplace.

I live in Canada and have used this company several times. My favorite brand here is Island Therapeutics — which sell some really nice full-spectrum hemp extract grown in the beautiful Cowichan Valley on Vancouver Island.

Tips for Buying CBD in Canada

  • Order from a Canadian-certified CBD retailer
  • European CBD brands are more likely to ship to Canada than US brands
  • Understand the differences between CBD oil and THC oil
  • Expect to pay about 15% more for CBD oil in Canada compared to the US
  • Know your retailer/company — shop from proven brands like Island Therapeutics
  • Don’t look purely at aesthetics — your CBD product can have great branding and still be of poor quality
  • Look for evidence of third-party testing before you buy
  • Avoid buying CBD labeled with health claims — this is illegal in Canada

A Brief History of Cannabis Laws in Canada

Canada has a complex cannabis history.

At the beginning of the 19th century, hemp cultivation was considered “the source of wealth to settlers.” The government distributed hemp seeds to farmers in hopes of stimulating the economy for its many potential uses.

Towards the end of the century, cannabis production was replaced with cotton due to cheaper labor costs.

In 1923, cannabis was added on the Confidential Restricted List under the Narcotics Drug Act Amendment Bill — 14 years before the United States prohibited cannabis.

Historians believe that one of the main reasons for cannabis prohibition was a paragraph from the book, The Black Candle. The author, Emily Murphy — the first female magistrate in Canada — described cannabis as an initiator of homicidal tendencies in users.

In the period between 1930 – 1940, cannabis convictions increased. Through the following years, cannabis was more and more equated with marijuana, and its psychoactive effects, which ultimately affected hemp’s legal status.

Marijuana became popular in Canada in the 60s with the rise of the counterculture. Ten years later, advocates made efforts to legalize marijuana.

In 1998, the Canadian government allowed cultivation and processing of industrial hemp under very restrictive rules.

In 2003 and 2004, two bills on the decriminalization of recreational marijuana failed. In 2006, penalties increased, and the maximum sentence on cannabis production doubled from 7 to 14 years.

Today, under the Cannabis Act, cannabis — regardless of its THC content — is completely legal in Canada. The country allows the cultivation of both marijuana and industrial hemp.

Is CBD Legal In Canada?

Under the Cannabis Act, both marijuana and industrial hemp are completely legal in Canada. However, only cannabis licensed processors and retailers can extract, produce, and sell CBD.

For consumers, it’s easy to order CBD oils if you live in Canada. The hard part is for the people and companies selling CBD oil.

Canada has very strict regulations about who can sell cannabis products. Everything from the storage, labeling, advertising, and pricing are tightly controlled by the Canadian government.

Anybody that wants to sell CBD oils in Canada needs to go through a complicated application process that can take several months. The whole process costs a fortune and leaves a lot of startup founders pulling their hair out.

Is Delta 8 THC Legal in Canada?

The short answer is yes, all naturally-occurring analogs of THC are legal in Canada.

The active ingredient in marijuana is THC. Most THC in the cannabis plant is a specific isomer called delta 9 THC.

Lately, there’s been another version of THC circulating around called delta 8 THC. It’s popular because it gets a pass from some of the more prohibitive marijuana laws in places like the United States. Learn more about the legal status of delta 8 THC in the United States.

But it goes much further than this.

Delta 8 THC actually has a different high than the standard delta 9 isomer. It’s much more chilled-out and relaxing. People who find regular THC products too “anxiety-inducing” will likely prefer the effects of delta 8.

In Canada, delta 8 THC is entirely legal for both recreational and medical purposes. All marijuana-derived products are considered legal here, including the delta 8 isomer.

Canadian Law: What is The Cannabis Act?

During his campaign in 2015, Canada’s Prime Minister Justin Trudeau promised to legalize recreational marijuana. In October 2018, the Canadian Cannabis Act came into effect, amending the Controlled Drugs and Substances Act, and the Criminal Code.

Before the Cannabis Act, CBD was strictly regulated under the Controlled Drugs and Substances Act and was illegal to produce it or sell unless it was authorized for medical or scientific purposes.

The Cannabis Act includes several regulations on the cannabis plant — both marijuana and hemp.

Following its rules, you must be at least 19 (18 in Alberta and Quebec) years of age to purchase cannabis products, and you’re limited to 30 grams of dried cannabis in public at a time.

30 grams is pretty generous. This works out to just over an ounce, which is plenty for most cannabis users in a given day, but not so much that it’s even worth selling on the black market.

The Canadian government employed strict penalties if users don’t abide by these rules. Possession over the 30 gram limit could lead to 5 years in prison.

Can I Take CBD Oils From Canada to the US?

It’s illegal to transport any cannabis products across the US-Canada border. This is true even in cases where the border-state considers CBD completely legal. Even though you’re traveling from Canada to a legal-US state, the border is the domain of the federal government — where Cannabis is considered a Schedule I drug.

Europe is also problematic for transporting CBD products. While I’ve heard many stories of people doing this without any issues — some countries strictly ban any cannabis products which could land you in some serious trouble if caught.

Do not cross any borders with CBD products.

How is Industrial Hemp Regulated Under the Cannabis Act?

The Cannabis Act includes a specific regulation on hemp, known as the Industrial Hemp Regulations Program (IHR). The Industrial Hemp Regulations Program defines hemp as a cannabis plant and plant parts with a THC content of 0.3% or less in the leaves and flowering heads [1].

Under this program, Canadian farmers can grow low-THC cannabis — which we’ll refer to as industrial hemp — under government-regulated conditions. To cultivate, process, and sell industrial hemp, Canadian farmers must obtain a federal license.

The IHR allows the procession and sale of industrial hemp derivatives such as hemp seed oil, hemp flour, and hemp seeds.

Under the IHR, industrial hemp does not include derivatives obtained from the flowering parts of the leaves.

Therefore, farmers who want to extract derivatives from industrial hemp (including CBD), must obtain a cannabis processing license.

The cannabis processing license authorizes the grower to cultivate hemp for the parts that have CBD and process them for CBD products.

Without this license, the hemp grower can still cultivate the plant for CBD-containing parts but only sell them to a licensed cannabis processor.

Final Notes on Buying CBD In Canada

Canada is a cannabis enthusiast’s dream. The country’s laws are friendly towards the cannabis plant — which means buying both hemp and marijuana products easy to buy online and in-store.

However, along with the openness comes a lot of regulation. Canada treats cannabis products a lot like alcohol — which means there are strict rules regulating who can make and sell CBD products.

Selling CBD oils in Canada requires a lot of money, and a lot of legal hoops to jump through which can take several months or longer.

Most of the CBD brands sold in Canada are strictly based out of Canada. You’ll be hard-pressed to find American CBD companies that ship that far North. You’re more likely to find a European company that ship CBD oils to Canada, but the shipping rates can be hard to justify.

Instead, head to a marketplace like CBD Oil Canada, or check out some Canadian CBD brands like Island Therapeutics, Ontario Cannabis Shop, or Tilray.

Medical Cannabis in Ontario

Although recreational cannabis has been legalized throughout Canada, those in Ontario seeking out medical cannabis should only seek treatment for medical conditions through approved practitioners.

At CannaWay Clinic, our physicians and medical staff specialize in providing Ontarians with full treatment plans and can offer prescriptions for all forms of medical cannabis products, including CBD oil and products containing THC.

How do I get medical cannabis in Ontario?

The process for obtaining medical cannabis is the same in Ontario as it is in other Canadian provinces, however, the process is still quite different than the process of getting other types of prescriptions. Medical cannabis in Canada is regulated under the Cannabis Act.

At CannaWay Clinic, we help our patients through every part of the process. The first step is to schedule a virtual appointment using our online web form. You do not need a doctor’s referral to schedule an appointment.

Once you have been granted a prescription, you can order your prescription through an Approved Licensed Producer. Medical cannabis is tax deductible in Canada and may even be covered by some health insurance policies.

CannaWay Clinic serves patients across Ontario including Toronto, Ottawa, London, Kitchener-Waterloo, Hamilton and Niagara.

What are the regulations concerning the use of medical cannabis in Ontario?

Although healthcare is governed through provincial bodies, the Cannabis Act is the regulatory framework that guides the use of medical cannabis across the country. CannaWay Clinic is compliant with both federal and provincial legislation that relates to healthcare and medical cannabis.

To access medical cannabis, patients must obtain a prescription from a health care practitioner. At CannaWay Clinic, you will have a comprehensive consultation where a medical cannabis prescription will be granted if deemed appropriate for your ailments or symptoms. Then, a licensed cannabis producer will fill your prescription for products such as CBD or THC oils, cannabis topicals or cannabis flower.

With your prescription, you can travel anywhere in Canada with your medical cannabis. You may not take your medical cannabis with you on international trips at this time.

What symptoms are CannaWay Clinic patients suffering from in Ontario?

Medical cannabis is prescribed to patients suffering from a wide variety of health conditions ranging from chronic pain to mental health issues such as depression and anxiety. Among the conditions we have seen treated with medical cannabis are:

If you are affected by any of the conditions listed above or if you have another medical issue that you believe medical cannabis might help, we encourage you to schedule a consultation with one of our doctors to assess your needs.

Contact us today to schedule your remote consultation

At this time, during social distancing measures from COVID-19, CannaWay Clinic is scheduling remote appointments for your safety. If you are seeking treatment with medical cannabis anywhere in Ontario, please fill out our online form. We will contact you shortly to schedule your Telemedicine Appointment. All appointments are free of charge to the patient.

About Ontario

Located in east-central Canada, Ontario is the economic hub of Canada, with a population of 14.57 million. The capital city is Toronto. Ontario is also home to the nation’s capital Ottawa. Ontario is well known for its national diversity, including the Great Lakes, provincial parks and the majestic Niagara Falls. In 2018, CannaWay Clinic opened up several cannabis clinics including branches in Oakville, Scarborough, Brampton, Mississauga, and Etobicoke. Due to the pandemic, we have switched to virtual appointments to serve our patients better.

Comprehensive Medical Cannabis Plan

There are no referrals necessary to book an appointment with one of our physicians.

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Which cbd oil is best for parkinson& 39

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Best CBD Oil for Parkinson’s Disease – June 2022

Can a Daily Dose of CBD Help With Parkinson’s Disease?

  • CBD may have therapeutic effects on Parkinson’s disease (PD), especially on the non-motor symptoms associated with the neurodegenerative disease.
  • A study in 2009 has found that CBD improved psychosis and decreased delusions, hallucinations, and sleep disturbances in Parkinson’s disease patients (1 ) .
  • A study published in The International Journal of Neuroscience reported CBD’s positive effects on motor symptoms, such as tremors, of the test subjects with Parkinson’s disease (2 ) .
  • A study published in the journal Frontiers in Pharmacology suggests that CBD may be a useful preventive therapy for Parkinson’s disease. However, the researchers acknowledge that it is challenging to diagnose PD in its early stages (3 ) .
  • Current research shows that CBD has great potential in the treatment of Parkinson’s disease. However, further studies need to be done to establish CBD’s benefits for Parkinson’s disease.

Best CBD Oils for Parkinson’s Disease

Spruce 750mg Lab Grade CBD Oil

Specifically formulated to be more palatable to CBD users
Overall Clinical Score

Each bottle of the 750mg CBD oil tincture contains 25mg of CBD per dropper full. The oil is peppermint flavor to mask any unpleasant tastes related to CBD.

  • Mid-strength
  • Natural peppermint flavor
  • Made from 100% organic and natural ingredients
  • No other flavors

NuLeaf Naturals 900mg Full Spectrum Hemp CBD Oil

Perfect for anyone who are looking for CBD products that promote a healthy body and mind.
Overall Clinical Score

Natural remedy for various illnesses. NuLeaf Naturals’ CBD oil is a whole-plant extract containing a full spectrum of naturally occurring synergistic cannabinoids and terpenes.

  • Pure CBD hemp
  • All natural
  • Approximately 300 drops total
  • No other flavors

cbdMD CBD Oil Tinctures

Uses USA hemp that is grown on non-GMO farms, and is both vegan and gluten-free
Overall Clinical Score

cbdMD’s CBD oil tinctures are made using only CBD sourced from medical hemp and MCT oil as a carrier oil. Tinctures are offered in orange, mint, natural, and berry flavors. Safe for daily use, the oil tinctures are packaged with a built-in rubber dropper to adjust CBD dosage easily. The packaging is made to be easy to transport and discreet to use.

  • Plenty of concentrations to choose from for all people with various kinds of needs
  • Has vegan, organic, and gluten-free ingredients
  • Affordable pricing
  • Affordable pricing
  • cbdMD uses MCT as its carrier oil so individuals who are allergic with coconuts should consider other brand options

Sabaidee Super Good Vibes CBD Oil

4x the strength of a regular cbd oil
Overall Clinical Score

Super Good Vibes CBD Oil provides the purest and highest quality Cannabidiol (CBD) on the market as well as other high quality phytocannabinoids, terpenes, vitamins, omega fatty acids, trace minerals, and other beneficial for your health elements, which all work together to provide benefits.

  • Extra strong
  • Significant benefits with just a few drops
  • 100% Natural ingredients
  • No other flavors

Why People Are Turning to CBD for Parkinson’s Disease

Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disease characterized by low dopamine levels in the brain. This disorder happens because of the impairment of dopamine-producing brain cells in an area of the brain , called substantia nigra (4 ) .

Dopamine is a chemical that is responsible for managing a person’s movement and emotional responses.

Next to Alzheimer’s disease, PD is the second most prevalent degenerative disorder of the central nervous system (5 ) .

Currently, there is no absolute cure for Parkinson’s disease. The most common treatment is dopamine-replenishing medicines such as levodopa.

Levodopa helps manage the motor symptoms of Parkinson’s disease effectively. However, it is found to be less effective in treating non-motor symptoms of the disorder, especially in the late stage (6 ) .

According to the Parkinson’s Foundation, the disease’s non-motor symptoms include depression, anxiety, fatigue, sleep disorders, hallucinations, and vision problems (7 ) .

Long-term use of levodopa could also bring about side effects, such as low blood pressure, nausea, vomiting, lightheadedness, loss of appetite, confusion, and dyskinesia (8 ) .

Dyskinesia is characterized by abnormal and involuntary movements that can be caused by the prolonged use of levodopa (9 ) .

Research has found that the use of levodopa early in one’s treatment increases one’s risk of developing dyskinesia (10 ) .

A 2010 study said that in extreme cases of levodopa-induced dyskinesia, the adverse effects may outweigh the benefits a patient gets from using the drug as a treatment.

To avoid long-term motor complications in their patients, some doctors prescribe levodopa with caution and, if possible, as a second-line strategy in the treatment of Parkinson’s disease (11 ) .

Because of treatment issues, like the risks posed by levodopa use, more patients are exploring alternative treatment options, such as cannabidiol or CBD oil .

CBD is the active ingredient of the cannabis plant that is non-psychoactive. The other primary component, tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), is the active ingredient in medical cannabis that can get people high.

Research conducted in 2020 and published in the Journal of Psychopharmacology has found that CBD attenuated the anxiety and tremors of the test subjects who had PD (12 ) .

The patients, who were over 60 years old, underwent a public speaking test. Those who took 300 mg of CBD before performing the speech had fewer reported symptoms than the placebo group. A placebo has no therapeutic effect and is often used in the control group of clinical experiments.

Tremors and anxiety are symptoms of Parkinson’s disease.

In the later stages of PD, patients could develop hallucinations and psychotic symptoms.

A 2009 study concluded that CBD was effective in improving psychosis and decreasing delusions, sleep disturbances, and hallucinations (13 ) . The researchers did not observe harmful side effects from the use of CBD.

Another study has discovered marked improvements in the quality of life and well-being of test subjects who were administered with 300 mg of CBD daily, throughout the clinical test period (14 ) .

It is important to note that the test subjects had no psychiatric comorbidities (occurrence where a patient has overlapping medical conditions).

During the early stages of the disease, Parkinson’s patients may develop dystonia, a movement symptom characterized by repetitive spasms, muscle twisting, and cramps (15 ) .

In a study aimed at exploring the beneficial effects of CBD in treating Parkinson’s disease, the researchers initially gave five patients with dystonic movement disorders low doses of CBD (16 ) .

Over six weeks, the dosage of CBD was increased from 100 mg to 600 mg daily. The CBD products were given along with standard medications.

The researchers reported that CBD doses over 300 mg per day improved hypokinesia, resting tremors, and the dystonia of the test subjects.

Hypokinesia is characterized by no movement (akinesia) or slow movement (bradykinesia) (17 ) . It is a condition that impacts the motor function of patients with Parkinson’s disease and is caused by a disruption in the basal ganglia.

Basal ganglia are nuclei found in the brain that are responsible for the coordination of movement.

A 2018 study suggests that CBD’s positive effects in Parkinson’s disease may be more preventive than therapeutic (18 ) . The study emphasizes that CBD could potentially be more effective as a preventive strategy.

The challenge in preventive PD therapy is that it is difficult to diagnose the disease in its early stages.

The researchers also underscore that , in most clinical trials, CBD is given to the test subjects who have already experienced a substantial progression of Parkinson’s disease. For this reason, conflicting results are observed from studies that examine whether CBD is effective in treating the neurodegenerative disease.

How CBD Oil Works to Alleviate Symptoms of Parkinson’s Disease

According to a 2017 study, the manipulation of the endocannabinoid system (ECS) may have an essential role in the treatment of the symptoms of Parkinson’s disease (19 ) .

The ECS modulates several physiological functions, like mood, motor control, and cognition . The cannabinoid receptors of the ECS, particularly cannabinoid receptor 1, are abundant in the basal ganglia (20 ) .

The study suggests that manipulating the ECS could improve motor symptoms and other Parkinson’s disease symptoms.

One way to manipulate the ECS is through the introduction of laboratory-derived or medical marijuana-derived cannabinoids in the body. The primary cannabinoids that come from the marijuana plant ( Cannabis Sativa) are CBD and THC.

It has been suggested in the studies mentioned above that CBD might be helpful in the treatment of Parkinson’s disease.

Common symptoms of Parkinson’s disease include the following (21 ) :

  • Tremor ( involuntary shaking of hands or voice)
  • Bradykinesia (slowness of movement)
  • Reduced coordination
  • Shuffling gait (posture changes)
  • Fixed facial expressions (caused by changes in facial muscle nerves)
  • Handwriting changes
  • Loss of the sense of smell
  • Sleep problems
  • Depression
  • Mood changes
  • Difficulty swallowing and chewing
  • Urination problems
  • Constipation
  • Skin problems

Parkinson’s disease may, later on, develop into Parkinson’s disease dementia. This condition affects a person’s cognitive functions, including remembering things, paying attention, or communicating with others (22) .

CBD for Inflammation

According to Dr. Rebecca Gilbert, Vice President and Chief Scientific Officer of the American Parkinson Disease Association, inflammation has an essential role in the progression of Parkinson’s disease (23 ) .

One of the causes of PD is the accumulation of Lewy bodies, clumps of protein that can cause complications in different functions, like thinking, mood, behavior, and movement.

The abnormal deposits of Lewy bodies can trigger inflammatory responses, which can result in further disease progression.

A study in 2009 concluded that cannabinoids, like CBD, had anti-inflammatory properties that can suppress inflammation (24 ) .

CBD for Anxiety and Depression

Parkinson’s disease includes non-motor symptoms, such as the development of anxiety and depression .

A study in 2017 outlines the use of cannabis-related products, like CBD, to treat psychiatric disorders, like anxiety, psychosis, and depression (25 ) . The study outlines CBD’s neuroprotective effects, which can potentially have therapeutic effects on Parkinson’s disease.

CBD for Better Sleep

One of the significant symptoms of Parkinson’s disease is the occurrence of sleep problems.

In 2014, researchers found that the administration of CBD for six weeks had therapeutic effects on the rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behavior disorder of four PD patients (26 ) .

Patients with PD usually have sleep disturbances, like REM sleep behavior disorder. This condition may alarm PD family members as it causes patients to violently act out when vivid and unpleasant dreams occur (27 ) .

The Pros and Cons of CBD Oil for Parkinson’s Disease

The Pros
  • Preclinical trials, observational studies, and clinical trials on human and animal models have revealed CBD’s therapeutic effects on Parkinson’s disease.
  • Compared to the usual medications for PD like levodopa, CBD has a more favorable safety profile (28 ) .
  • To date, there is no recorded case of CBD dependence in humans (29 ) . Hence, it is not a substance that has the potential for abuse.
The Cons
  • Further research needs to be made on CBD use, especially as a preventive therapy for Parkinson’s disease.
  • CBD use also has side effects, such as diarrhea, tiredness, and changes in weight or appetite (30 ) .
  • The United States Food and Drug Administration (US FDA) has not approved the use of CBD in treating Parkinson’s disease.
  • Due to the lack of FDA regulation, incidences of mislabeled CBD products are prevalent, especially products that are sold online (31 ) .

How CBD Oil Compares to Alternative Treatments for Parkinson’s Disease

There are various alternative treatments for Parkinson’s disease. These include massages, acupuncture, yoga, and meditation (32 ) .

While these alternative remedies have therapeutic benefits, especially on Parkinson’s symptoms, like chronic pain due to movement impairments, CBD use proves to have more benefits.

CBD may aid in alleviating some of the motor and non-motor symptoms of Parkinson’s disease , as shown in the studies previously mentioned.

How to Choose the Right CBD for Parkinson’s Disease

The use of CBD oil may be helpful in the treatment of Parkinson’s disease. There are three types to choose from, namely , full-spectrum CBD oil, broad-spectrum, and isolates.

Full-spectrum CBD oil is the most recommended, as its use of all the ingredients of the cannabis plant is believed to produce an entourage effect.

The entourage effect is the synergy of the trace amounts of THC, flavonoids, fatty acids, and essential oils. These active ingredients work together to give maximum therapeutic benefits to users.

THC may cause a high on users. Drug tests can also detect it. Patients who want to avoid this risk may use broad-spectrum CBD oils. This type of oil contains all the ingredients of a full-spectrum oil except for THC.

PD patients who want to use pure isolated cannabidiol may avail of CBD isolates.

CBD Dosage for Parkinson’s Disease

Because of the lack of US FDA approval, the use of CBD has no standard dosage chart. The dosing rule is to begin with small amounts of CBD . If there are no adverse effects, the CBD dosage may be gradually increased.

According to the studies mentioned above, 300 mg of CBD was well-tolerated in Parkinson’s disease patients.

How to Take CBD Oil for Parkinson’s Disease

  • CBD oils and tinctures (drops) – These may be applied under the tongue for more efficacy. These formats are best for PD patients who have difficulty swallowing.
  • CBD capsules
  • CBD edibles, like gummies
  • CBD lotions and creams are best used during massages to relax stiff joints and painful body parts
  • CBD vape pens – The inhalation of CBD gives almost instantaneous effects. However, vaping is not recommended for PD patients because the method may damage the lungs (33 ) .

Conclusion

Parkinson’s disease is challenging to treat because it is hard to detect in its early stages. When the disease is diagnosed, it usually has already progressed severely.

Levodopa, the most commonly used medication in managing Parkinson’s disease, has adverse side effects, especially when used long-term. It is beneficial in treating the motor symptoms of the disease. However, it is not as effective in alleviating its non-motor symptoms.

CBD has a vast potential in the management of Parkinson’s disease. While CBD helps treat its non-motor symptoms, it can also help enhance PD patients’ motor functions.

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Where to buy cbd oil for dogs in utah

600mg CBD For Dogs Utah

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King Kalm 600MG CBD with Copaiba Oil and DHA In Utah

KING KALM™ 600MG CBD with Copaiba Oil and DHA for Dogs in Utah is made with all natural cannabidiol from hemp. Our 600mg CBD with DHA and copaiba essential oil, is the most potent formula in our collection. It comes in a 30ml bottle with one oral syringe for easy delivery. Like the rest of the KING KALM™ products, this CBD, DHA, Krill and Copaiba oil for dogs also includes a dosing chart to help owners determine what the best dosage for their pets.

Hemp Oil for Cats and Dogs Utah

Our CBD for pets in Utah combines high-quality cannabidiol with natural copaiba oil and DHA to deliver a more potent soothing effect than CBD alone. Owners around the world have used our products to support calmness and relaxation, joint mobility, and more.

Why Buy King Kalm CBD for Dogs In Utah

KING KALM™ Pet CBD Oil is made with extracts obtained from industrial hemp grown in the United States. All of our King Kalm CBD products are manufactured in our GMP Certified, ISO-9001 FDA registered facility. Our CBD for cats and dogs are always tested in a third-party ISO certified lab to ensure dose accuracy, purity, and consistency. Making us the best CBD oil for pets in the market.

See Our King Kalm FAQs for Further Information.

Suggested Dose: Use the dosing chart included in the box (also posted above with product images). Administer 1-2 times a day.

Ingredients:

 Naturally Occurring Broad Spectrum Cannabidiol (CBD), DHA, Copaiba Essential Oil, Krill Oil, Hemp Oil

Why choose King Kalm?

Broad spectrum Phytocannabinoid rich oils

  • CO2 extraction
  • Each product is formulated with your pet in mind manufactured in our GMP Certified, ISO-9001 FDA registered facility.
  • Third party lab tested (available upon request)
  • Homogenously suspended in Krill oil and lavender
  • Edible recipes are formulated by our license holistic physician and nutritional expert
  • Free of solvents, pesticides, metals and unnatural substances
  • All oils come with a dosing chart and oral syringe (our charts and delivery method is to ensure the maximum amount of CBD per dose)

CBD or Cannabidiol is one of over 80 cannabinoid compounds found in the cannabis/hemp plant. It is a completely natural, plant-based compound that is non-toxic, non-psychoactive, and does not produce a so-called “high.”

How do I know if my dog or cat needs CBD?

As mammals, all dogs, cats, and humans have what is called an Endocannabinoid System (ECS). This system contains receptors which when bound to create and modulate an immune system response, can have a profound effect on the nervous system and many common conditions that plague both us and our furry family members.

Will CBD interact with my pets medication?

We always recommend consulting with your veterinarian prior to using our products.

Is it as effective for dogs or cats as it is for humans?

What makes King Kalm CBD different from other CBD pet products?

King Kalm™ CBD is derived from Broad Spectrum Cannabidiol Oils. Extracted from the highest quality all naturally occurring hemp and suspended in high omega-3 Krill Oil. Our CBD is lab tested vigorously and often for its potency and bio-availability. We do not use ANY artificial ingredients, flavors, preservatives, or colors whatsoever. Our product is 100% pure and something that can be found only in nature. We only create and sell a product we would give to our own pets.

How do I know which strength/bottle to choose?

There are many factors in deciding which milligram bottle to choose which can also depend on the ailment you are treating. Since each dog and family is different it really becomes a personal decision.
Please use this chart to choose:
Small sized pet 20 lbs & under – 75mg bottle (approximately 2.5mg / 1ML)
Medium sized pet 21lbs to 50 lbs – 150mg bottle (approximately 5mg / 1ML)
Large sized pet over 50 lbs – 300mg bottle (approximately 10mg / 1ML)

How much CBD is there in the King Kalm Crunch treats?

There are approximately 3-4 milligrams of CBD per treat and approximately 30 treats in each 8oz bag.

How do I dose King Kalm CBD?

Each box of King Kalm™ CBD comes with a dosing chart that may guide you based on your pet’s weight.
Please note: This product has not been approved by the FDA and is not intended to treat, diagnose or cure any disease. Always consult a veterinarian prior to supplementing any product.

How do I give my pet the oil?

Each box comes with an oral syringe to administer in their mouth. That is the preferred method but you can put it in your pets food as a second option.

Is King Kalm CBD given more than once a day?

Administer the dose once a day and take notes of how your pet is responding. Monitor the signs and symptoms over a few days to weeks’ time. Make adjustments based on your pets response.

Once I start CBD therapy, do I have to always give it to them?

Ask yourself this; once you decide to eat healthy, do you have to continue eating healthy in order to gain the benefits from the nutrients and vitamins found in that food? The answer is yes. This is a lifestyle change and like all other lifestyle changes they must be consistent in order to achieve the best results. There are no greater results to be had than the health of our four legged family members.

How does King Kalm help with my pet’s health problems?

The FDA prohibits the correlation of our products and the healing of any medical condition and or ailments. We recommend trying one of our products for at least one month to witness any changes in your pet.

Ten Ways CBD Oil Can Make your Pet’s Grooming Experience (and LIFE!!) better.

Here are a few reasons why we are so excited about CBD Oil for Pets.

Introducing our new Product! CBD Oil for Pets!

We’re excited to now offer Pet CBD Oil. This third party tested and verified CBD isolate oil for pets is great for relieving anxiety and pain prior to travel, grooming or for everyday use for your pets aches and pains. It’s THC free and comes in a 1 oz bottle. You can order it online and we’ll ship it to you

Treat Your Dog’s Joint Pain and Anxiety Naturally with CBD Oil!

Want to “weed” out man-made pharmaceuticals to help relieve some of your pup’s ongoing health problems? You’re not alone. More and more pet parents are turning to an all-natural alternative, Cannabidiol oil (better known as CBD oil), made from the hemp plant.

Studies have shown that CBD oil and other CBD products are beneficial for several human health issues, including anxiety, pain, seizures and neurological disorders. But is CBD effective and safe for dogs?

Article Overview

What Is CBD Oil?

Cannabidiol (CBD) is extracted from the flowers and buds of cannabis (marijuana or hemp plants). CBD, however, doesn’t produce the “high” associated with marijuana because it doesn’t contain the chemical tetrahydrocannabinol (THC).

For further clarification, hemp and marijuana both come from the cannabis plant but contain different levels of THC. Marijuana can contain as much as 30% THC while the hemp plant has a max of only 0.3% THC. So, while marijuana-derived CBD oil is still illegal in most states, the hemp-derived oil is legal in all 50 U.S. states.

Human use of CBD oil is growing in popularity, especially in states where medicinal and recreational marijuana use is legal. But can you give CBD oil to dogs? Is it safe for our canine friends and other pets?

Many vets recommend CBD oil for dogs, even as veterinary scientific research into this new treatment is in its infancy. Studies in humans, however, show that cannabinoids have anti-inflammatory effects and can help with anxiety, aggression, pain, seizures, muscle spasms and neurological disorders.

CBD Oil vs Hemp Oil: What’s The Difference?

Many people think CBD oil and hemp oil are essentially the same, but they’re not.

CBD Oil

CBD is an active cannabinoid compound that comes from the leaves, flowers, and sometimes stems of mature cannabis plants. It’s this compound that provides the medical and therapeutic benefits you get from CBD oil (see below).

Hemp Oil

In contrast, hemp oils are made from cannabis seeds, which contain little to no amounts of CBD (or THC, for that matter). While hemp seeds don’t share the same therapeutic characteristics as CBD, hemp oils have their own unique nutritional benefits. Many pet owners use hemp oil as a nutritional supplement because it’s vitamin and mineral-rich.

How Can CBD Oil Help My Dog?

Like humans, dogs and cats have an endocannabinoid system that allows them to benefit from CBD oil. This system allows the active ingredients in hemp to help relieve many symptoms. Learn more about the endocannabinoid system in dogs.

CBD drops for dogs or CBD dog treats can ease several conditions your pup may suffer from either occasionally or chronically, including:

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Best site for full spectrum cbd oil

5 Best Full-Spectrum CBD Oils and Tinctures of 2022 From Top Hemp Brands

As the use of full-spectrum CBD oil for ailments grows in popularity, you may be wondering if it could help you? Well, the short answer is yes, it can!

Cannabidiol or CBD is a chemical found in cannabis Sativa plants and has begun surging in popularity and consumption. Unlike THC, the chemical compound that gets you ‘high,’ CBD has calming and medicinal effects. Most of the time, CBD is extracted in oil form, and from there, it is either bottled in CBD Oil tincture or infused with other substances to create food and or drinks.

CBD is still an emerging field, and the legality of its use varies from state to state and nation to nation. However, the benefits of CBD and the ailments they can help with are widely publicized and known. From anxiety and depression to forms of epilepsy and pain, CBD can help them all.

The issue is, how do you choose from many online shops and thousands of full-spectrum CBD products? Don’t worry; we’re here to help you find what’s right for you. After following the industry for some time and trying them out for ourselves, we compiled a list of the best full-spectrum CBD oils you can buy today.

Top 5 Best Full Spectrum CBD Oils Of 2022:

1. Exhale Wellness – Overall Best Full-Spectrum Hemp CBD Oil; Editor’s Choice

2. Budpop – Top Cannabis Brand For Broad & Full Spectrum CBD Oil

3. Cheef Botanicals – Popular Full-Spectrum Hemp Oil Brand

4. HollyweedCBD – Recommended Full-Spectrum Cannabis Oil Doses

5. FAB CBD – Most Potent Full -Spectrum CBD Tinctures

Here are the detailed reviews of our top picks:

1. Exhale Wellness – Overall Best Full-Spectrum Hemp CBD Oil; Editor’s Choice

Exhale Wellness is a new CBD company based in Los Angeles. They have a strong team ranging from professional growers and researchers to everyday enthusiasts. With their skills combined, the team has accumulated many years of experience in the industry.

Exhale wellness sets industry standards regarding its sourcing, manufacturing, and ingredients. Exhale sources its CBD from farmers in Colorado and ensures its plants are of the highest quality, which is also reflected in their end products.

To follow suit, Exhale uses the industry’s best manufacturing method, CO2 extraction. Supercritical CO2 extraction gives the manufacturer complete control over the extraction process. This method is also more environmentally safe, provides a high-quality end product, and is safer for consumers and manufacturers.

All of Exhale’s offerings are made with delta-8 products. While delta-8 is technically a CBD, it has more in common with THC because of its effects. delta-8 has psychoactive properties, which means you can get ‘high’ off these products. As a result, it is essential to consider its effects and appropriate dosages. Additionally, the FDA is still looking into the legality of these products, but you can now purchase and consume these high-quality products.

Highlights

High-Quality Vegan and Organic Products: Exhale Wellness prides itself on being a sustainable and healthy brand. They use environmentally friendly extraction methods, and all their products are vegan-friendly and organic. They do not add artificial colorants or flavors, giving users a natural and organic taste and experience.

• Controlled Dosages: Exhale’s CBD oils give customers complete control over their experience. Exhale offers users dosages ranging in 300mg, 600mg, and 1200mg dosages. As a result, it doesn’t matter if you’re an experienced user or just starting; Exhale Wellness has something for everyone.

Delta-8 High: As all their products use delta-8, you can expect to get a high out of using their products. This experience means you can feel euphoric, calm, and in good spirits. Additionally, you can control precisely how ‘high’ you want to be because of the different dosages offered. This means that you can still experience all the great effects of CBD with small doses.

• Excellent Customer Satisfaction: Exhale’s oil drops have received overwhelmingly positive results. Customers have reported that the oils have helped ease anxiety, insomnia, depression, joint pain, and much more.

Pros

• Lots of health benefits

Cons

• FDA is still investigating delta-8

• No ingredients listed on products

• Third-party lab tests are sometimes inaccessible

2. BudPop – Top Cannabis Brand For Broad & Full Spectrum CBD Oil

Budpop sources their hemp from Nevada and ensures high-quality and organic products. Like Exhale, Budpop also uses delta-8 for its products. Budpop is considered a premium product and is highly recommended for experienced CBD and THC users. Their products are more potent than others on this list. Their CBD oil dosages range from 1500mg.

Budpop promises and delivers high-quality products. Their sourcing methods produce large quantities of potent and long-lasting delta-8 ingredients. In addition, all their ingredients are organic and vegan friendly, and no pesticides or GMOs are used during the cultivating period.

While the company mainly specializes in gummies, vape cartridges, and flowers, they have recently introduced delta-8 infused CBD oil tinctures. In addition, they currently offer a mint-flavored variant and a natural variant.

The mint flavor provides a refreshing and sweet hint which is excellent for those who do not enjoy the natural flavors of CBD. On the other hand, if you enjoy CBD’s natural flavors or don’t like mint, Budpop also offers an unflavoured tincture. Both bottles are provided in 1500mg dosages, with each serving amounting to 50mg each.

As a result, their offerings are pretty potent, so we recommend you take it an hour or so before bed. In addition, users have mentioned, it’s excellent in reliving sleeping disorders and pain.

Highlights

• Third-Party Transparency: Budpop lays it all out on the table. Their customers can easily see all the ingredients used in their products. Additionally, Budpop makes it convenient for their customers to view third-party lab results on all their products. These certificates mean their products are safe and include exactly what they advertise.

Great for Experienced Users: Budpop’s extraction method ensures a high yield of potent delta-8, which they then infuse with their products. As a result, experienced users can quickly feel the beneficial effects of CBD as if it were their first use.

• Premium Brand: Budpop prides itself on high-quality and premium products. Rightfully so, because their products have distinctive tastes and are superior to many other competitors.

• High-Quality Delta-8 Products: Their bread and butter are superior to delta-8 infused products. From organic farms straight to your doorstep, your potent CBD oil will alleviate problems like pain and anxiety in no time. Budpops is undoubtedly building a reliable and potent name for itself using delta-8.

Pros

• Tested by third parties

• 20% discount on first order

• Exclusive discounts for serving men and women as well as veterans.

Cons

• Vague extraction methods

• Not many products on offer

• It may be too intense for new users

3. Cheef Botanicals – Popular Full-Spectrum Hemp Oil Brand

Cheef Botanicals are a company that has perfected their CBD lineup. They are reliable, and their products are top sheld quality. They certainly know what they are doing as they are based in California and have CBD hailing from Colorado.

Users have reported a wealth of benefits from using Cheef Botanicals CBD products. The main benefits are muscle relaxation and stress relief. The dosages are also relatively low, but users can still feel the benefits. Therefore, users can dose during the day without worrying about their functionality.

As a result, Cheef Botanicals is highly recommended for people that don’t deal well with work stress or pain and people new to CBD. Their CBD oil comes at a max dosage of 300mg and a peruse of 10mg. As a result, you can finely tune precisely how much you want to take. If you feel it’s not enough, you can simply take another drop without worrying about going overboard.

One-Stop-Shop: Cheef Botanicals has everything you need to get into CBD. They offer a variety of gummies, flowers, and oils. They also have a clean website that is easy to navigate. The purchase and payment options are easy and quick, and they ship to most states throughout the US.

Total Control Over Effects: Many companies compete to have the most robust and most potent CBD products these days. As a result, it is refreshing to see a company focused on providing customers lower dosages to precisely control what they need. In addition, their 300mg CBD oil is perfect for beginners or people who aren’t looking to be overwhelmed by CBD benefits.

• Beginner-Friendly: If you have been suffering from long-term pain, stress, anxiety and are new to CBD, then Cheef is for you. The CBD is quality, but it isn’t potent like other stores. Furthermore, if prescribed medicine isn’t working or getting too expensive and you’ve been curious about CBD, then Cheef Botanicals is a great place to start.

Bang for Your Back: Cheef Botanicals ensures you get quality for the money you pay. Colorado organic hemp and CBD are known for their purity and quality, leading to suppliers charging a hefty amount for them. However, Cheef has exceptionally competitive prices and regular discounts to look out for.

Pros

• Fast pain relief

Cons

• Strong hemp flavor may be off-putting

4. HollyweedCBD – Recommended Full-Spectrum Cannabis Oil Doses

Hollyweed is run by a team of wellness experts with decades of experience in the medicinal CBD field. Their focus and goals are to promote healthy living by using CBD products. Hollyweed goes to great lengths to ensure its CBD oils are organic and healthy. They are fully transparent in their ingredients and methods. They also use CO2 extraction methods to provide a cleaner and sustainable product.

Based in California and shipping all over the US, Hollyweed is a household brand for many. In 2017 one of their members, Zach Fernandez, changed the Hollywood sign to Hollyweed and forever cemented their iconic name.

Their website provides useful and fascinating blogs about how their products improve health. They also offer some fun recipes where you can add your full-spectrum CBD oils.

Highlights

• Health-Conscious: Hollyweed’s primary selling point is its clean and healthy CBD. By using CO2 extraction methods, they provide a clean and safe product. The effects of their oils are meant to be subtle and produce all-around wellness. Holyweed recommends its CBD for everyone and not just those suffering from ailments. Their oils have a wide range of beneficial effects that range from better moods and sleep to energy and concentration.

• Unique Flavors: Most CBD oils are meant to be taken on their own, but Hollyweed promotes adding their oils to your food or drinks. As a result, their oils have unique flavors that complement foods. If you try their oils on their own, you’ll find they have an earthy and nutty taste. Their oils are also vegan and a great source of protein. The meals leave you feeling amazing!

• Helpful Blogs: Hollyweed’s website offers countless interesting blogs and useful recipes. From the history of CBD, all the way to great meal plans using their oils, they have it all. We guarantee they have something that will interest everyone. We highly recommend you look at some of their recipes as they are delicious with the oils added in.

• Regular Sales: Holyweed has frequent sales and promotions, saving you tons of cash on your favorite products. There is always some deal going on at Hollyweed, so it’s always the right time to buy. On top of that, their affordable prices, so there isn’t a reason not to give them a try.

Pros

• Promotes full-body wellness

• Great with foods and drinks

• Helpful and interesting website

Cons

• Vague on third party testing

• It may not be effective for people with serious ailments

5. FAB CBD – Most Potent Full -Spectrum CBD Tinctures

FAB CBD may have only started trading in 2017, but their team has over 25 years of combined experience in health, foods, and fitness. If you have searched for CBD pain relievers, you have undoubtedly come across FAB CBD.

FAB CBD specializes in creating organic CBD products and is 100% free from harmful chemicals. Their products are FDA certified as they have under 0.3% THC and use Colorado hemp. They also offer a wide variety of products in various forms for different ailments and effects.

However, their full-spectrum CBD oil is some of the best on the market. Most CBD companies will have CBD oil as a selection in their product range, but FAB CBD takes it to another level. They offer their oils in five different flavors and four different dosages. For flavors, you can go with: natural, citrus, mint, vanilla, and berry. Each flavor is excellent and unique, but the mint was the best for us.

For dosages you can choose between 300mg, 600mg, 1200mg and 2400mg. As a result,FAB CBD caters to all clients regardless of whether you are new or seasoned with CBD oils.

Highlights

• Fresh and Warm Website: FAB CBD’s website is sleek and informative. Their website is easy to navigate and contains all the necessary information about their products, including third-party lab results. Additionally, their website contains additional information like frequently asked questions and regular news articles about the industry in general,

• You Have Options: Not many CBD companies offer their clients an extensive range of options for their desired products. However, FAB does, and with great flavors and dosage selections, you will find your perfect combo in no time.

Easy to Use Instructions: On every FAB CBD product are a set of instructions for safe and responsible use of their products. This inclusion is excellent for beginners or new customers still exploring FAB’s products. It means you don’t need to google the correct dosage for you or get out the calculator either. Everything is clear-cut.

Points Rewards System: FAB CBD is one of a very few CBD companies that reward their regular customers. With every dollar, you spend you get 5 points. Customers can use these points for discounts on their next purchase. Top this with regular sales and free shipping on orders over $89, and you’ll find FAB CBD to be a bargain paradise.

Pros

• Free shipping and 30 days return policy

• CBD products for pets

Cons

• Products are often sold out

• Sold in the US only

with regards to everything CBD.

How We Made The List Of Best Full Spectrum CBD Oils:

Full-spectrum CBD oils are popular for customers with ailments who need fast-acting relief. However, today there are thousands of CBD oils on the market, and not all of them are equal in quality or purity. As a result, we ensured that all the suppliers on this list met our strict criteria. We guarantee that only high-quality and effective products are included.

What We Looked For

Source: One of the most important factors to consider is the source of their CBD and hemp. In the US, some states have strict guidelines on how CBD should be cultivated; this often leads to a higher quality product. Additionally, many suppliers will go through a lot of effort to ensure their products are organic and environmentally friendly, all big pluses for us.

• Company: The company behind the brand is just as important as the product itself. A reputable company will always have its customers’ interests in mind. As a result, we looked at companies’ mottos, visions, and, of course, prices vs. quality. A company that ensures customers’ health and the environment are considered means their products are well tested and carefully cultivated.

• Potency: The strength of CBD oils varies greatly, and it is essential you know what works for you. That’s why we considered each company’s dosages and ensured we covered products that suit newcomers and seasoned customers alike. In addition, we paid particular interest to companies that provide more than one dosage.

Transparency: Some less reputable companies will mix in other substances to lower their production costs or provide cheap and ineffective CBD. Reputable CBD oil companies will use third-party labs to test and verify the contents of their products. As a result, this was the main staple of our criteria. We looked at who tested the products and whether or not the supplier advertised these results on their websites.

• Customer Reviews: A telltale sign of whether a company is legit or not is its customer reviews. We meticulously went through hundreds of customer reviews for each supplier. Only those with excellent customer reviews were considered. It is also a great way to find out how CBD oils work for different ailments and their effects.

Buying Guide – Full Spectrum CBD Oil

• Know Your Dosage

Everyone reacts differently to CBD, and the amount you need to feel its beneficial effects varies between individuals. While most CBD companies will provide a dosage guide with their products or websites, they are very general guidelines. The safest and only way to figure out what works for you is to start small and gradually increase or decrease until you find the right amount. If you are new to CBD oils, go for a Full-Spectrum Oil tincture that provides 10mg per serving. This way, you have more control over how much you take and find your preferred dosage.

• Don’t Be Afraid to Try Something New

Full-spectrum CBD oils come in multiple flavors and dosages. Different tastes and effects are noticeable between different brands. So don’t settle on just one or assume that all flavors taste the same. Experiment with other CBD isolate products. Perhaps even mix flavors. If you want 20mg, try mixing 10mg of a citrus flavor with 10mg of mint. You should also try the edibles or flowers and see if you prefer that method.

• Know the Specific Laws In Your State/Country

In the US, the use of CBD is legal. However, each state has its laws on what type of CBD is legal. For example, Vermont allows all kinds of CBD for both recreational and medicinal use. But states like Kansas have banned CBD derived from marijuana. Knowing the laws of your state with regards to CBD will let you avoid trouble as well as disappointment. Additionally, some countries still view CBD as a harmful substance, and it is illegal to sell and consume. However, as CBD and cannabis, in general, become more researched and popular, more countries are changing their laws regarding its use.

• Understand the Difference Between CBD and THC

Those unfamiliar with CBD may think that CBD can also get you high and have all the ‘stoner’ stereotypes associated with it. This is not the case. While CBD and THC have the same chemical compound, they are structured differently. As a result, they interact with your brain’s receptors differently. THC is what makes a person feel and behave high. Full-spectrum CBD has calming effects and contains 0.3% or less THC. As a result, it is improbable you will get high from quality full-spectrum CBD.

• Be Aware of Side Effects

While CBD shouldn’t give users a high sensation, it may if 0.3% or more THC is present. That’s why it’s essential to check the ingredients and third-party lab results of the CBD Oil products you are buying. You don’t want to deal with being high at work when you just want to reduce your anxiety. Additionally, Hemp CBD oil can make users sleepy or euphoric and behaves differently in each individual. Don’t worry about any adverse side effects, as CBD has been proven time and time again to be safe.

FAQs – Best Full Spectrum CBD Oil On The Market:

Q1. What does full-spectrum CBD oil mean?

Best Full-spectrum CBD oil is considered a CBD substance that utilizes all of the full-spectrum hemp extract in the cannabis plant. Using all the plant’s contents, users experience a range of beneficial sensations. However, this does mean that full-spectrum CBD contains small amounts of THC, which leads to euphoric feelings.

Q2. How does full-spectrum CBD products & oils make you feel?

CBD causes feelings of relaxation and a sense of calm. It helps alleviate stress and anxiety. However, because full-spectrum CBD does contain THC, you may experience a sense of euphoria as well. Large doses may cause users to feel ‘high,’ particularly when delta-8 is concerned.

Q3. Will full-spectrum CBD oil cause me to fail a drug test?

You can still fail a drug test due to the trace amounts of THC in full-spectrum CBD oil. Therefore, consider the laws in your state and go through your employment contract before taking any substances.

Q4. Does full-spectrum CBD oil cause drowsiness?

CBD on its own should not cause drowsiness. However, as full-spectrum CBD contains other elements, drowsiness may be a side effect dependant on individuals. The best way to avoid this is to test small dosages and wait to see the effects. If sleeplessness is an issue for you, try taking the broad-spectrum CBD oil before bed.

Q5. How long does full-spectrum CBD oil stay in your system?

CBD will generally stay in a person’s system for between 2 and 5 days. However, some reports have shown that CBD stayed present in some individuals for weeks. This doesn’t mean that the effects of CBD persist for multiple days after a single dose. Instead, it means that trace amounts of CBD may still be found in your system long after the effects have worn off.

Q6. Is full-spectrum CBD oil better for anxiety?

Current and ongoing research has shown that Full-spectrum CBD oil effectively treats anxiety and chronic pain. Furthermore, customer reviews on the websites listed above show many customers reporting that the full-spectrum oils reduced their anxiety.

Q7. Can you take CBD every day?

As CBD is fat-soluble, the beneficial impacts of CBD begin to compound. As a result, many suppliers recommend taking CBD every day, especially if you suffer from chronic pain. CBD is a safe substance, and overdosing on CBD is highly unlikely.

Q8. What is the correct dosage for me?

Each person will have their perfect dosage, and you have to experiment to find out. However, we can put you in the right ballpark with these guidelines. If you suffer from mild ailments like sleeplessness, then 500mg is what you should aim for. If you suffer from issues like depression or insomnia, then aim for 1000mg. Finally, if you have chronic pain, 1500mg should ease it.

Conclusion – Best Full Spectrum CBD Oils

There you have it, the best full-spectrum CBD oils you can buy today. As the use of CBD grows, so does the refining and desire for premium CBD. If you have been suffering from minor or chronic ailments, then CBD could be the solution you’ve been looking for.

CBD is generally cheaper than prescribed medication as well as safer. If you are curious if CBD could help you, there is no better time to try it and find out for yourself. If you stick with the 5 brands discussed in this article, you are guaranteed premium and reliable hemp-derived CBD products. Each has its benefits with a unique natural flavor as well.

This article went through the best places to buy full-spectrum CBD oils. First, we discussed the rigorous judging criteria used to determine our top 5. Then broke down each of the top 5 best suppliers for full-spectrum CBD oil. In doing so, we discussed why we liked them and highlighted their best features. We tried to include a brand for every type of buyer.

Following this, we gave you some valuable things to consider when buying broad-spectrum CBD oil, so don’t forget to check back before any purchases. Finally, we answered your frequent questions about CBD to alleviate some stress or concerns.

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7 Best Full-Spectrum CBD Oils in 2022 – Natural Relief for Pain, Inflammation & Anxiety

CBD is a natural compound that can be used to help with a wide variety of issues, from anxiety to pain relief and CBD oil is becoming more and more popular as people learn about its benefits. Full-spectrum CBD oil products contain all the beneficial natural components of the hemp plant, so it offers the full goodness of hemp, unlike broad-spectrum and CBD isolate products that use slimmed down versions of hemp extract.

But with so many different CBD oils on the market, it can be hard to know which one is best for you. We did the work for you by combing through the internet to find the highest-quality full-spectrum CBD oils available. Read on to discover the 7 best full-spectrum CBD oils that we recommend to our readers. We’ll also help you determine which full-spectrum CBD product might be best for you based on your needs and preferences.

7 Best Full-Spectrum CBD Oil Brands

    – Editor’s Choice – Close Second – Honorable Mention – Great Discounts – High Bioavailability – Many Flavors
  1. NuLeaf Naturals – Informative

7 Best Full-Spectrum CBD Oil – Reviews

1. CBDfx – Editor’s Choice

Pros:

  • USA-grown organic hemp
  • Third-party tested
  • 60-day money-back guarantee
  • Free Shipping Available
  • Mild taste

Cons:

Company Overview

Founded in 2014, CBDfx has been making a name for itself as a reputable company in the CBD space and has become one of the most well-known CBD brands. Their full-spectrum CBD is derived from organic USA-grown hemp and their products go through a third-party lab test for potency and purity. These results are provided for customers to look at on their website before purchase. They use CO2 extraction methods to ensure no solvents end up in the final product.

About the Product

CBDfx’s full-spectrum CBD products offer a wide range of CBD benefits. You can purchase oils that have added ingredients like melatonin for sleep or brain-boosting mushrooms for better focus. The products are highly reviewed by over 23,000 customers and most people agree that they enjoy the lack of strong taste in the oils they’ve purchased from CBDfx.

There are several perks available like subscribe and save features and discounts on bulk or bundle orders. Their CBD products are also medically reviewed and come in several different potencies so you can find the perfect dose for you.

Why We Recommend It

The CBDfx full-spectrum tincture is a great choice for those just starting out with CBD. It’s a mild and easy-to-use product with a pleasant taste. Their third-party testing and medically reviewed products give the company credibility so you know you can trust the products you receive. CBDfx also offers a 60-day money-back guarantee, so you can try it out without any risk.

2. CBDistillery – Close Second

Pros:

  • USA-grown hemp
  • Many options
  • 60-day money-back guarantee
  • Third-party lab tested

Cons:

Company Overview

CBDistillery uses Colorado-grown hemp for its full-spectrum CBD products and all the farms they work with use modern and pesticide-free farming practices. Their CBD products are third-party lab tested for potency and purity with results available to review before purchase. They use CO2 extraction methods to ensure the purest products, and they give you lots of options when it comes to picking a full-spectrum CBD oil.

About the Product

The full-spectrum oils offered by CBDistillery come in several different potency options, which makes this brand a great choice for anyone looking to dial in their perfect dose. They also have a wide range of flavors to choose from, plus an unflavored option for anyone who prefers a natural taste to their CBD products. You can also choose oils that have added terpenes or other nutrients to boost the effects of your CBD and get added benefits.

Why We Recommend It

CBDistillery is a great choice for full-spectrum CBD oils. They offer a wide range of potency and flavor options, which makes them a great choice for anyone who hasn’t decided on their top favorite yet. They also offer a 60-day money-back guarantee so you can shop with confidence. All of their products are third-party lab tested for potency and purity, so you can trust that you’re getting a quality product.

3. Green Roads – Honorable Mention

Pros:

  • Formulated by a licensed compounding pharmacist
  • Multiple potency options
  • USA-grown hemp
  • Third-party tested

Cons:

  • Some people aren’t a fan of the taste

Company Overview

Green Roads was founded by a pharmacist after she saw all the positive research coming out about CBD and how it could help so many people with several health conditions. She noticed that there were a lot of bad CBD products on the unregulated CBD market and wanted to fix that by offering high-quality CBD to everyone who needs it. Green Roads makes their full-spectrum CBD oil using USA-grown hemp and all-natural ingredients. The products are third-party tested, and the results are made available to view on the website for transparency.

About the Product

Green Roads’ full-spectrum CBD products come in a wide range of potencies, from 10 mg CBD per ml to 50 mg per ml, making it a great choice for anyone who knows what potency they need. These oils are made with natural ingredients and lack artificial colors and flavors. The oil is vegan, gluten-free, and formulated by a pharmacist. If you’re interested in CBD isolate, this company offers it, too. Green Roads is unique in that they offer daily dose packets that you can buy that have a single dose in them for convenience. They also have generous discounts for first responders, teachers, and veterans.

Why We Recommend It

Green Roads’ full-spectrum hemp-derived CBD products are a great choice for those looking for a high-quality product. The company was founded by a pharmacist, so they have a deep understanding of CBD and how it can help people. They use only USA-grown hemp and all-natural ingredients in their products. The full-spectrum CBD oil products are third-party tested for potency and purity, and they offer generous discounts to first responders, teachers, and veterans.

4. Absolute Nature CBD – Great Discounts

Pros:

  • Generous discounts
  • Third-party tested
  • USA-grown hemp
  • Organic and vegan ingredients

Cons:

  • Only one potency is available

Company Overview

Absolute Nature CBD was founded with a mission to provide the best all-natural full-spectrum CBD products to enhance people’s lives with the benefits of CBD. They noticed the lack of quality and transparency that was running wild in the CBD market and wanted to do their part to provide safe and effective CBD to anyone who wants it. They value transparency and make all third-party lab results available for viewing on their website. They also use natural, organic, and vegan ingredients as well as USA-grown hemp from Colorado.

About the Product

The full-spectrum CBD oil offered by Absolute Nature CBD is USDA Certified Organic and contains a host of other beneficial ingredients like terpenes, minerals, fatty acids, and vitamins that can be found in the hemp plant. With only two ingredients (CBD hemp extract and MCT oil), this full-spectrum CBD oil tincture is about as pure and natural as you can get.

This company has a lot of positive reviews from customers who say the customer service is fantastic. The company accepts returns on its products with a 30-day money-back guarantee and they also offer generous discounts for veterans, first responders, low-income households, and anyone who has autism, epilepsy, or anyone on long-term disability.

Why We Recommend It

Absolute Nature CBD is a great choice for full-spectrum CBD oil because they are transparent about their ingredients and use third-party testing. They use only organic and vegan ingredients as well as USA-grown hemp, which makes them a great choice for anyone looking for a clean and pure product. They have generous discounts for veterans, first responders, low-income households, and anyone who has autism, epilepsy, or anyone on long-term disability. Anyone who falls into any of those groups could benefit greatly by purchasing from Absolute Nature CBD.

5. CBD American Shaman – High Bioavailability

Pros:

  • High bioavailability
  • USA-grown, organic hemp
  • Third-party tested
  • 45-day money-back guarantee

Cons:

  • Only one potency option

Company Overview

CBD American Shaman is a family-owned business with a mission to provide the highest quality CBD products to the public. They use only organic, USA-grown hemp in their products and strive to be eco-friendly. The company follows the highest standards to produce an effective, safe, and trustworthy hemp extracted CBD while using proprietary nanotechnology that makes their oil nine times more bioavailable than other nonprescription CBD products on the market. CBD American Shaman also shows that they care about their customers by offering generous discounts for veterans, people in need, or in low-income households.

About the Product

CBD American Shaman’s water-soluble full-spectrum CBD oil is much easier for your body to absorb than other CBD oils on the market, meaning you will reap more benefits from their oil than oils made by other companies. Their organic, vegan, and gluten-free oil comes in three different flavors, and you can purchase it at a strength of 10 mg per ml of CBD.

Why We Recommend It

CBD American Shaman’s full-spectrum CBD oil is one of the most bioavailable CBD oils on the market. It is made with organic, USA-grown hemp and is vegan and gluten-free. The company also offers generous discounts for veterans and people in need, as well as a money-back guarantee so you can shop without the fear of wasting money if you decide the product isn’t for you.

6. Charlotte’s Web – Many Flavors

Pros:

  • Best flavors
  • Organic and USA-grown hemp
  • Added flavonoids
  • Natural ingredients
  • Third-party tested

Cons:

  • Customer service can be hard to get a hold of

Company Overview

Charlotte’s Web was founded in 2011 to save a child who suffered over 300 grand mal seizures a day. The brand has been making a name for itself as one of the most reputable brands in the CBD space ever since. This company uses USA-grown and organic hemp as well as all-natural ingredients for their full-spectrum CBD oil, making their products healthy and pure. Each batch is tested by a third-party lab and those results are made available on the company’s website for full transparency.

About the Product

Charlotte’s Web’s full-spectrum oils come in several different potencies and are made from organic hemp that is pesticide-free and free of heavy metals, and chemical fertilizers. The terpenes and flavonoids included in their CBD oils will help boost the entourage effect that full-spectrum CBD oil gives you, so you will get more benefits out of your oil. The company also offers broad-spectrum CBD and CBD isolate for anyone who would like to try them. Customer reviews mention that they like the taste of Charlotte’s Web products over other products on the market.

Why We Recommend It

The full-spectrum CBD oils available at Charlotte’s Web are some of the best-tasting oils on the market. They are also made with organic and USA-grown hemp, as well as all-natural ingredients. Charlotte’s Web is also one of the most reputable CBD brands available, and they offer full transparency by making the results of their third-party lab testing available for viewing on their website. Anyone who wants a great-tasting and effective oil from a trustworthy brand will benefit from buying from this brand.

7. NuLeaf Naturals – Informative

Pros:

  • Wide potency range
  • Fast shipping
  • Organic, USA-grown hemp
  • Organic

Cons:

  • No flavor options

Company Overview

NuLeaf was founded in 2014 by health-conscious lovers of plant-based medicine who were concerned about the wide range of untrustworthy CBD products that were emerging on the market. Its mission is to provide CBD products that are clean, healthy, and effective so that everyone can reap the benefits of a happier and healthy life with the aid of CBD. They use third-party testing and make the results available on their site so all customers can see what they’re buying before they click the order button.

About the Product

The full-spectrum oil offered by NuLeaf is made with whole-plant hemp extract and organic virgin hemp seed oil. With only these two ingredients, NuLeaf CBD oil is one of the most natural products that you can find on the market today. The CBD is pulled from the hemp using a CO2 extraction method – the cleanest way of extracting CBD from hemp plants. You can purchase their full-spectrum CBD oil in a wide range of sizes, from 300 mg CBD to 6000 mg CBD.

Why We Recommend It

NuLeaf CBD oil has a wide range of potencies to choose from, making it an excellent choice for people who want to experiment with different potencies to find the one that works best for them. They also offer full transparency by making their third-party lab test results available on their website. Additionally, they use only organic and USA-grown hemp in their products, making them a safe and healthy choice.

How We Chose Our Top Full-Spectrum CBD Products

Finding the best full-spectrum CBD oil on the market isn’t always easy, especially given the lack of regulation in the CBD space. It’s even more challenging if you aren’t sure what qualities to look for when searching for your CBD. We set out to find the best full-spectrum CBD oils by judging each product in an unbiased way using these four criteria:

  1. Potency range: Not everyone needs the same dosing of CBD, and it can be difficult to find your perfect dose when you only have one potency available. Giving customers options adds to convenience and can also end up saving customers money. That’s why companies with multiple doses available got more points from us.
  2. Transparency. Since the CBD market is largely unregulated, it’s important to be able to trust a brand when they tell you what’s in their product. The best way to get that trust is by being as transparent as possible and granting customers easy access to third-party lab results. Companies that made their results easy to find scored more points.
  3. Ingredients: CBD is the most important ingredient when it comes to full-spectrum CBD oil, but where that ingredient comes from matters. Any added ingredients matter, too. Products made with organic hemp and no added artificial ingredients are considered healthier and get more points from us.
  4. Company reputation: You can tell a lot about a company’s products by looking at their reputation. If a brand has a lot of good reviews and satisfied customers, you can trust that you will have a better chance of being satisfied by the product you buy, too. For that reason, CBD companies with more positive reviews scored more points for this list.

What Are the Different Types of CBD Oil?

CBD oil is a type of cannabinoid oil that is derived from cannabis. CBD can be made from either marijuana or hemp plants, but is typically made from hemp plants because, by definition, they have very low amounts of THC so do not cause any psychoactive effects. There are three primary types of CBD oil: full-spectrum CBD oil, broad-spectrum CBD oil, and CBD isolate.

Full-spectrum CBD oil is made from the whole hemp plant, while broad-spectrum CBD oil is made from the plant but without the THC. CBD isolate is what the name implies – pure CBD with no other cannabinoids, terpenes, or other natural compounds found in hemp.

Many consider full-spectrum CBD to be the most effective type of CBD, as it contains all the cannabinoids, terpenes, fatty acids and other beneficial compounds found in the plant that help promote what is known as the entourage effect, which boosts the effectiveness of CBD in the body. However, it does contain trace amounts of THC, so it is not recommended for those who may be concerned about drug tests.

Broad-spectrum CBD oil is a good choice for people who want the benefits of full-spectrum CBD without any THC. Since it still contains all other cannabinoids, this type of oil can still help to promote the entourage effect.

CBD isolate is good for people who are looking for the pure effects of CBD, since isolates contain nothing but CBD. Ideal for those who absolutely can’t ingest any THC, CBD isolate products are most often found in powder form that makes it easy to mix with food and drinks.

What Are the Benefits of CBD Oil?

CBD oil has a variety of benefits, including reducing anxiety, relieving pain, and treating seizures. CBD oil is also effective for treating other conditions like the side effects of cancer treatment and Alzheimer’s disease.

Many studies have found that CBD can help regulate blood sugar levels to combat diabetes, reduce inflammation related to arthritis, and improve heart health. CBD oil can also help to improve sleep quality and reduce stress levels. CBD has also been found to improve sleep and boost cognitive performance.

How Do I Choose the Right Full-Spectrum CBD Oil?

There are thousands of different full-spectrum oils on the market today, which makes it hard to find the perfect one for you. But even if you’re completely new to buying CBD, there are a few things you can look out for to make it easier for you to decide on the right product.

First, consider the potency of the full-spectrum CBD oil. The potency is the amount of CBD in the product, and it is typically measured in milligrams (mg). If you have never used CBD before, you might want to start with a product that has low potency and work up from there. On the other hand, if you’re an experienced CBD user, you might want to look for a full-spectrum CBD oil that has a high potency, as this means that you will get more CBD per dose.

Second, consider the price. full-spectrum CBD oils can vary in price significantly, so you’ll want to find one that fits into your budget. Keep in mind that a high-quality product won’t be cheap, but it shouldn’t cost you a month’s salary, either. Try to find an oil that is competitively priced – like any of the products included in this review.

Third, consider the company that is selling the full-spectrum CBD oil. Not all companies are created equal, and you’ll want to do your research on the company before you buy from them. Look for a company that has a good reputation and that sells high-quality products. All of the companies on this list are reputable and trustworthy, so you know you’ll get a great product from them.

Finally, consider the ingredients in the full-spectrum CBD oil. Full-spectrum CBD oils contain all the cannabinoids and terpenes found in the hemp cannabis plant, so you’ll want to make sure that the oil you’re considering contains all of these ingredients. If an oil doesn’t contain all of these ingredients, it’s not a full-spectrum CBD oil and you should avoid it. Also, take notice of any added ingredients. Avoid oils with artificial flavors or coloring.

How Do I Use Full-Spectrum CBD Oil?

There are several different ways to take CBD oil, and the best way for you depends on your personal preferences and how you want it to work. You can use CBD oil by taking it by mouth or sublingually. Taking CBD sublingually (putting it under the tongue) is the most common way to take it, as it’s the quickest and most effective way to absorb the CBD.

You can also add CBD oil to your food or drink it straight. This takes a little while longer to absorb since the CBD has to go through your digestive system, but it’s a good option if you don’t want to taste the oil.

Finally, you can also use CBD topically. Many companies make creams, lotions, serums and other topical CBD products that can be applied directly to the skin. This is a good option if you’re looking for relief from pain or inflammation in one specific area of your body.

Safety and Side Effects of CBD

CBD is a great product that people often turn to for natural relief from pain, anxiety, and other health conditions because it’s considered very safe and rarely has any side effects. However, there are some minor side effects that you might experience when taking CBD, including diarrhea, changes in appetite, and fatigue. Most of the time, these side effects are very mild and temporary and go away within a few days. However, if you experience any severe or persistent side effects, you should stop taking the CBD and consult your doctor.

Also, keep in mind that CBD has been found to interact with several different medications. If you’re taking any medications, you should consult your doctor before taking any of their approved nonprescription CBD products to make sure that there are no interactions. The most common medications that CBD interacts with are blood pressure medications, anti-seizure medications, and antidepressants.

How Does CBD Work?

CBD works by interacting with the body’s endocannabinoid system. The endocannabinoid system helps maintain balance in the body, and when it’s disrupted, it can lead to a variety of health conditions.

When you take CBD, it gets released into your bloodstream, where it travels to receptors in the brain and immune cells. The CBD interacts with the receptors and stimulates your brain to release neurotransmitters like dopamine and serotonin, which can help with pain relief, anxiety, and other conditions. The CBD that interacts with receptors in your immune system helps to block pain signals to the brain and can help with conditions like inflammation and autoimmune diseases.

How Much CBD Should I Take?

The amount of CBD that you should take depends on your individual needs and the condition you’re trying to treat. Most people start with a low dose of CBD and increase it gradually if needed. For best results, you should talk to your health care provider to get their recommendation for dosing.

If your health care provider doesn’t give you a recommendation, start by taking 5 mg full-spectrum CBD oil per day for a week. If after a week, you don’t think you’re getting the full benefits of CBD, increase your dose by 5 mg and repeat for a week. Do this until you reach a good dose that gives you the benefits you’re looking for.

What’s the Difference Between CBD and THC?

CBD and THC are both cannabinoids that interact with your endocannabinoid system, but they have different effects on the body. THC is the cannabinoid that’s responsible for the psychoactive effects that are associated with marijuana. CBD, on the other hand, doesn’t have any psychoactive effects and is considered safe for people of all ages.

Is CBD Legal?

CBD is legal in all 50 states in the US as long as it comes from the hemp cannabis plant and not the marijuana cannabis plant. All products on this list use hemp-derived CBD and are federally legal. However, the laws surrounding CBD can vary from state to state. You should check with your state’s laws to make sure that you’re following the correct regulations.

Is There Anyone Who Shouldn’t Use CBD?

There is limited research on the use of CBD during pregnancy and breastfeeding, so it’s best to avoid using CBD if you’re pregnant or breastfeeding. There is also limited research on the use of CBD in children, so it’s best to avoid using CBD if you’re a child.

Anyone on certain medications that interact with CBD should avoid using CBD products. When in doubt, consult your doctor. They will tell you if CBD is the right choice for you.

Is CBD Addictive?

CBD is not addictive and won’t cause any psychoactive effects. It will not cause dependency and if you stop taking CBD, you won’t experience withdrawal symptoms. For this reason, it’s a safe choice for people who are looking for an alternative to prescription medications that can be addictive or have harsh side effects.

Will Full-Spectrum CBD Make Me Fail a Drug Test?

It is very possible that full-spectrum CBD may make you fail a drug test. Although full-spectrum CBD is made from hemp-derived CBD and is federally legal, it does contain trace amounts of THC – albeit at very small trace levels (no more than .3%).

To be safe, try taking a broad-spectrum CBD or CBD isolate product instead.

Does CBD Oil Expire?

Like all consumables, CBD oil does expire, but it lasts a long time. To extend its shelf life, it’s best to store it in a cool, dark place. CBD oil can last for up to two years if stored properly.

Studies have found that the potency of CBD will start to degrade starting at 6 months, so to make sure you’re getting the maximum benefit from your CBD, don’t buy more than you can use within 6 months.

Conclusion

Full-spectrum CBD oil is a great product that many people use for natural relief from a variety of different conditions. It has a host of benefits and is considered very safe and rarely causes side effects, which is why more people are seeking out CBD to add to their life as a natural remedy every day.

But we know that finding the best full-spectrum CBD oil can be difficult without knowing what to look for. That’s why we put together this review of the best full-spectrum CBD oils on the market. We hope this review has been helpful. If you’re looking to dive into the world of full-spectrum CBD and start enjoying all the benefits it has to offer, we recommend any of the products on this list.

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Cbd oil dosage for hyperthyroidism in cats

CBD Oil for Cats: What You Need to Know

As cat owners look for ways to keep their kitties happy and healthy, they’re starting to explore alternative treatments not previously considered by Western medicine. Among these alternative treatments is cannabis oil.

This isn’t much of a surprise, considering that more people are turning to cannabis as a natural treatment for their health issues and research studies have consistently shown the plant’s positive impact on inflammation and other ailments. However, as studied as cannabis’s effect on humans may be, there have been no official major scientific studies into its impact on pets.

So, is cannabis safe for cats? And what sorts of ailments might it treat?

What Is CBD Oil?

Cannabis plants contain more than 100 active compounds, but the one most often used for medicinal purposes is cannabidiol, or CBD. CBD differs from cannabis’s major active compound, tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), in that it does not have a psychoactive effect, meaning it will not get users “high.” CBD oils contain a high concentration of CBD and can be used for therapeutic purposes.

“There are not many classical medical studies that explore the effects of CBD oil in cats,” says Dr. Daniel Inman, a veterinarian at Burlington Emergency Veterinary Specialists in Williston, Vermont. “While we don’t recommend CBD oil for our patients, holistic veterinarians are using it to treat a variety of ailments, including inflammation, anxiety and pain.”

Inman is careful to specify that CBD oil is often used to subjectively increase comfort and improve quality of life in pets, not necessarily cure ailments. This type of treatment should be advised by your veterinarian and not initiated without their consent.

Is CBD Oil Safe for Cats?

Although there have been no scientific studies that specifically investigate the impact of cannabis on pets, Dr. Gary Richter, a holistic veterinarian and owner and medical director of Montclair Veterinary Hospital and Holistic Veterinary Care in Oakland, California, says that CBD oil is generally safe for cats. However, there can be some adverse effects to giving your cat CBD oil, including gastrointestinal upset and some sedation, both of which can be relieved by discontinuing the use of the oil.

“I think the bigger issue, from a medical perspective, is making sure that animals are dosed appropriately. This means that the CBD oil is having the effect you want it to have, and that you’re not accidentally overdosing,” he says.

Dr. Liza Guess, a clinical assistant professor at the Ohio State University Department of Veterinary Medicine in Columbus, Ohio, says that the lack of official, documented research into the effects of cannabis products for cats would make her hesitant to recommend them.

“I have heard that, in humans, marijuana products can be used for neuropathic pain, intractable seizures, anxiety, and appetite stimulation. I have plenty of medications in each of those categories [that are not cannabis] that have been safely used in cats for years that I am very comfortable using and understand well,” she says. “These medications have gone through rigorous studies and are approved by the FDA. Why would I want to use a poorly understood treatment that I can’t guarantee is safe or even effective?”

She adds that the FDA does not regulate the CBD products that are available on the market, so consumers can’t be sure that they’re giving their pets the dosage that they think they are.

“Pet owners looking to give their animals CBD oil should do their due diligence before purchasing anything online,” Richter says. “The marketplace is very much a ‘buyer beware’ environment, and people should be sure that the product they’re buying has been laboratory tested for both content, as well as contaminants like bacteria, fungus, and heavy metals.”

Also, it’s worth noting that while CBD oil is typically quite safe for cats and dogs, cannabis plants are not. “There is plenty of documentation of marijuana toxicity in cats, for those that nibble on the plants,” Guess says.

Inman adds that as an ER veterinarian, he often sees marijuana toxicity in the animals that come into his practice. “You can usually tell if a pet has gotten into someone’s marijuana. And, in more severe instances, I have had to hospitalize animals until the effects have worn off.”

Is CBD Oil Legal?

Regardless of how well CBD products work for cats, there is also the issue of legality. If a cannabis product contains less than 0.3 percent THC, it’s classified as “hemp,” which is not a restricted substance. Most, if not all, CBD oil fits this description. The bigger issue is discussing this course of treatment with your veterinarian.

“In a perfect world, your veterinarian would be able to discuss this treatment as an option for your pet, but depending on where you live, your veterinarian may or may not be legally at liberty to have this conversation with you,” Richter says. “Even if you live in a state where cannabis is legal, it can be illegal for a veterinarian to tell a pet owner how to appropriately use these products.”

There are activists looking to change these laws, Richter among them.

“For example, there’s a bill being brought to the California State Legislature to debate the use of medical cannabis for animals and veterinarian involvement,” he says. “There’s a very robust conversation going on right now about it whether or not veterinarians should be able to discuss and recommend cannabis for their patients, and, if so, exactly what that looks like.”

Being able to discuss all types of treatments with your veterinarian is key, and Richter advises checking in with your vet before giving your pet any sort of cannabis. “There’s no reason to ever start giving any kind of medication or supplement without having a conversation with your veterinarian first,” he says.

How To Use CBD For Cats With Hyperthyroidism

If your cat is dealing with a hyperthyroid disorder you can help improve your cat’s condition by using CBD oil. CBD oil can help your cat in many ways and it allows you to treat your cat without having to rely on medication or other things. Read on to learn the benefits of CBD for cats with hyperthyroidism.

Hyperthyroidism is a big problem with older cats. This condition causes a lot of problems with cats and it usually affects older cats. Middle-aged cats can also get this condition.

When your cat is producing too many thyroid hormones he can become hyperthyroid. The thyroid gland gets bigger and your cat is going to start losing weight.

Cats can end up with serious weight loss and they can look thin when they have this condition. They also develop a huge appetite and your cat is going to eat much more than normal. Your cat might also be extra thirsty and might even have to go to the bathroom more.

Your cat might have a lot of extra energy and might seem very hyper. Your cat might also have diarrhea and he could vomit a lot. Your cat might have matted fur and the fur might look unkempt.

The vet can determine whether your cat has this condition or not. The vet will check for an enlarged thyroid gland and will come up with a treatment plan for your cat. Most cats need medication and some cats have surgery or changes in their diet.

If your cat needs dietary changes or medication consider using CBD oil. The oil can help to reverse this condition so your cat starts feeling better again. The oil is powerful and it really works. You can expect your cat to start feeling better fast and it won’t take a long time for your cat to deal with these problems. When your cat feels better you are going to feel better and your cat is going to be a lot healthier.

Taking care of your cat is important and you need to ensure that your cat gets all of the help he can get. Your cat is your best friend and you want to do everything you can to make him healthier. Taking good care of your cat is very important so make sure that you do everything you can to take care of your cat.

You don’t want to risk any problems with your cat’s health. With CBD for cats with hyperthyroidism, your cat is going to be healthier and he is going to feel a lot better. Your cat is going to have all of the support he needs and he is going to feel a lot better.

This oil is crucial and it can really help your cat heal. Your cat is going to be a lot healthier and it is going to be easier for your cat to thrive. The oil is crucial when your cat has this condition and it can really help your cat feel better.